This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
5-lipoxygenase mediates docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide and N-arachidonoyl-L-alanine-induced reactive oxygen species production and inhibition of proliferation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells
- Seok-Woo Park†1,
- J. Hun Hah†1, 2, 3,
- Sang-Mi Oh1,
- Woo-Jin Jeong4 and
- Myung-Whun Sung1, 2, 3, 5Email author
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 31 January 2016
Accepted: 4 July 2016
Published: 13 July 2016
Endocannabinoids have recently drawn attention as promising anti-cancer agents. We previously observed that anandamide (AEA), one of the representative endocannabinoids, effectively inhibited the proliferation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines in a receptor-independent manner. In this study, using HNSCC cell lines, we examined the anti-cancer effects and the mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) and N-arachidonoyl-L-alanine (NALA), which are polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-based ethanolamides like AEA.
Methods and Results
DHEA and NALA were found to effectively inhibit HNSCC cell proliferation. These anti-proliferative effects seemed to be mediated in a cannabinoid receptor-independent manner, since the antagonist of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) and vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1), two endocannabinoid receptors, did not reverse the ability of DHEA and NALA to induce cell death. Instead, we observed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a decrease of phosphorylated Akt as a result of DHEA and NALA treatment. Antioxidants efficiently reversed the inhibition of cell proliferation and the decrease of phosphorylated Akt induced by DHEA and NALA; inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), which is expected to be involved in DHEA- and NALA-degradation pathway, also partially blocked the ability of DHEA and NALA to inhibit cell proliferation and phosphorylated Akt. Interestingly, ROS production as a result of DHEA and NALA treatment was decreased by inhibition of 5-LO.
From these findings, we suggest that ROS production induced by the 5-LO pathway mediates the anti-cancer effects of DHEA and NALA on HNSCC cells. Finally, our findings suggest the possibility of a new cancer-specific therapeutic strategy, which utilizes 5-LO activity rather than inhibiting it.
Endocannabinoids are endogenously-produced cannabinoids that are involved in a variety of physiological processes (including pain-sensation and memory) through the activation of cannabinoid receptors . Endocannabinoids recently gained attention because cannabis began to be clinically used . More interestingly, these endogenous molecules have been reported to exert cytostatic, apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic effects in different cancer cell lines and cancer xenografts [3–5].
Although the mechanistic actions of endocannabinoids have been revealed in several cancer cell types, the exact mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer action are still unclear. This may be because of the complexity and variety of the signaling pathways that endocannabinoids induce, which seem to involve both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent pathways [6, 7]. Evidence suggests that endocannabinoids might suppress cancer cell viability through the activation of classic cannabinoid receptors such as cannabinoid receptor-1/2 (CB1 and CB2) and vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1). However, increased production of ceramide and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of caspase, PPARs, p38, and JNK signaling are reported to be related to the anti-cancer action of endocannbinoids [8–12]. New putative receptors for endocannabinoids, such as GPR55, have been recently identified, and there is a possibility that these receptors contribute to off-target endocannabinoid effects in order to suppress cancer cell viability .
Since cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the enzyme that produces prostanoids from arachidonic acid (AA), is well known to be associated to cell viability in several types of cancer , COX-2 has been studied as a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of various cancers [14, 15]. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO), the other enzyme involved in AA metabolism, was reported to be overexpressed in some cancer cells . Similar to COX-2, 5-LO is expected to be a promising target for molecular targeted cancer therapy because 5-LO has been identified as being related to carcinogenesis due to its ability to promote cell proliferation and angiogenesis [17–19].
Previously, several groups observed that the cancer cell-killing effects of anandamide (AEA) were mediated through prostamides produced by COX-2 in some types of cancer . These findings are important for molecular targeted cancer therapy, since COX-2 has been found to be highly expressed in many cancer cells. However, we expected that targeting 5-LO, may be another potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, using head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cancer cells, we investigated the precise role of AA-catabolizing enzymes in regulating the receptor-independent anti-cancer effects of several endocannabinoids that are similar to AA in chemical structure. Since both 5-LO and COX-2 are associated with AA metabolism, we hypothesized that 5-LO might be also be related to the catabolism of some endocannabinoids, including DHEA, EPEA and NALA, all of which are similar in structure to AA. Although we have already analyzed and observed (especially through the induction of angiogenesis) the carcinogenic role of 5-LO in head and neck cancer cells , here, we further investigated the possibility of targeting 5-LO as a possible cancer treatment.
SNU-1041, SNU-1066 and SNU-1076 cells (human HNSCC cell lines) were obtained from the Korean Cell Line Bank (Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea), while PCI-1 (human HNSCC cell lines) was obtained from the Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (University of 7Pittsburgh, PA) . HOK 16B is an immortalized cell from pharyngeal mucosa (a gift from Dr. Jeffrey N. Myers in M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas) . Cells were maintained at 37 °C in a humidified, 5 % CO2, 95 % air atmosphere and routinely sub-cultured using trypsin-EDTA.
Endocannabinoids - docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA), eicosapentaenoyl Ethanolamide (EPEA) and N-arachidonoyl-L-alanine (NALA), antagonists of CB1 and VR1 (AM251, cay10448), antioxidants (NAC and GSH), and inhibitors of 5-LO (AA861, zileuton and ebselen) were obtained from Cayman Chemical (Ann Arbor, MI).
Cell proliferation assay
Cells were seeded in culture plates and incubated for the specific time at 37 °C prior to treatment with specific drugs for the indicated time. After treatment, Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo Lab., Tokyo, Japan) was used to measure cell proliferation according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Measurement of apoptosis by Annexin-V staining assay
Apoptosis of SNU-1041 and SNU-1076 by DHEA and NALA was assessed using an Annexin-V staining kit (Koma Biotech, Seoul, Korea). After exposure to 20 μM of DHEA or NALA for 60 h, cells were harvested and washed with cold PBS and re-suspended in binding buffer containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated annexin V protein and propidium iodide. Annexin V binding and PI staining were determined by flow cytometric analysis (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA, USA). Apoptotic cells were defined as PI-negative and annexin V-positive.
Plasmids expressing FAAH and 5-LO
Using each cDNA, we established pcDNA3.1 expressing vectors (pcDNA3.1-lacZ, -FAAH and -5LO). Cells were transfected with 0.5-1 μg of plasmids by electroporation using Microporator MP-100 (NanoEnTek Inc., Seoul, South Korea), following the protocol provided by the manufacturer. Then, cells were seeded in culture plates and incubated for an additional 36 h before another treatment of AEA.
Transfection of siRNA
Individual siRNAs against COX-2 (D-004557-04), 5-LO (L-004530-00) and non-targeting control (D-001210-01) were obtained from Dharmacon RNA Technologies (Lafayette, CO). The best conditions of siRNAs application (used doses and treatment time) were established beforehand by western blotting and EIA . Cells were transfected with 200 nM of siRNA by electroporation using Microporator MP-100 (NanoEnTek Inc., Seoul, South Korea), following the protocol provided by the manufacturer. Then, cells were seeded in culture plates and incubated for an additional 48 h before another treatment of tested drugs (like DHEA).
Quantification of PGE2 and LTB4 production
The amount of the desired factor released by the cells was determined using PGE2 or LTB4 enzyme immunoassay kits (EIA) (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Cell co-culture with transwell system
SNU-1041 cells were transfected with 200 nM of siRNA against 5-LO or non-targeting control and placed at once in the lower side of a transwell (NUNC Company, Denmark) chamber partitioned by a polycarbonate membrane (8.0 μm pore size, Corning Incorporated, Costar). Then SNU-1041 cells (with no transfection) were seeded in the upper side and co-cultured for 48 h. Subsequently, cells were treated with 30 μM of DHEA or NALA for additional 48 h. Both cells (in upper and lower side) were separately applied to the cell proliferation assay (at a total of 96 h).
Measurements of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
The generation of ROS was measured by using the DCFH2-DA assay . Intracellular ROS production was determined directly in cell monolayers in black 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates using a Fluoroskan Ascent FL microplate reader (Labsystems, Sweden). Cells in complete medium were incubated with the indicated drugs for 18 h. To measure the production of ROS, cells were treated with 5 μM DCFH2-DA at 37 °C for 30 min, and the fluorescence of DCF was measured at 530 nm after excitation at 485 nm (DCFH2-DA, after deacetylation to DCFH2, is oxidized intracellularly to its fluorescent derivative DCF). Assays were performed in modified Hank’s buffered salt solution (HBSS).
Western blot analysis
Denatured protein lysates were resolved by 4–12 % NuPAGE gels (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Schleicher & Schuell, Dachen, Germany). The membranes were incubated with anti-5-LO (BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ); anti-p-Akt (Ser473), anti-pan-Akt (Cell signaling, Danvers, MA); or monoclonal anti-β-actin (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) for 2 h at room temperature or overnight at 4 °C. Membranes were then washed (4 times) with TBS-T and incubated with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody (Pierce, Rockford, IL) for 1 h. Immunoreactive proteins were visualized by developing them with Lumi-light western blotting substrate (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), followed by exposure in a LAS-3000 (Fuji Film Co., Tokyo, Japan) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. This was followed by quantitation of specific bands with the Multi Gauge software (Fuji Film Co., Tokyo, Japan).
Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of at least triplicates, or as a representative of 3 separate experiments. Significance was determined between treated and untreated groups by two-sided Student’s t-test. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
DHEA and NALA effectively inhibit the proliferation of HNSCC cell lines
The anti-cancer action of DHEA and NALA occurs at an intracellular location
Anti-cancer effect of DHEA and NALA was reversed by inhibition of 5-LO, but not by inhibition of COX-2
The anti-cancer effects of DHEA and NALA are not mediated by any products generated by the 5-LO pathway
DHEA and NALA increase ROS production
5-LO inhibition as well as antioxidant treatment partially reversed DHEA- and NALA-inhibited cell proliferation
5-LO-induced ROS mediates the decrease of phosphorylated Akt by DHEA and NALA
Exogenous transfection of plasmids expressing 5-LO promotes the anti-cancer action of DHEA and NALA in HNSCC cells
Since psychotropic side effects by cannabis are reported to be mediated by classic cannabinoid receptors , there might be some concern about the idea of adopting endocannabinoids as a cancer treatment. However, it has been also reported that the cell-killing effect of several endocannabinoids is mediated by cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanisms [6, 7, 23]. In addition to classic receptors like CB1 and CB2, GPR55 and GPR35 were recently reported as putative receptors of endocannabinoids [13, 27]. Given these observations, it might be possible to find a way to avoid the psychotropic side effects of endocannabinoids and use them as chemotherapeutic agents. In our study, we hoped to find a CB receptor-independent effect of the endocannabinoids in order to develop them as new cancer therapeutics without psychotropic side effects.
Although DHEA was reported to activate classic cannabinoid receptors , the anti-cancer action of DHEA seemed to be mediated by receptor-independent pathways in our study, since antagonists of cannabinoid receptors had no effect on it. Our observation of the perfect reversal of the anti-cancer effect of DHEA and NALA by transfecting FAAH into HNSCC cells confirms that DHEA and NALA can be degraded by FAAH.
The fact that COX-2 and 5-LO are highly expressed in cancer cells than in non-cancerous cells suggests that they might be useful molecular targets for cancer therapy [18, 28]. Their inhibition has been shown to have efficient suppressive effects on cancer cell viability in several types of cancer, such as colon cancer [14, 19]. In our previous study using HNSCC cells, we observed little anti-proliferative effect by inhibiting COX-2 and 5-LO directly . However, in this study, we observed that COX-2 and/or 5-LO activity might be able to promote the cell-killing action induced by some endocannabinoids. This observation suggests that COX-2 and/or 5-LO might be used as specific targets for cancer therapy in ways other than simply inhibiting their activities. Indeed, we identified that DHEA and NALA were able to kill HNSCC cells through 5-LO-mediated ROS production in a receptor-independent manner, even though HNSCC cells might have expression of their receptors such as CB1 and/or VR1.
Until now, it has not been reported that endocannabinoids like DHEA and NALA might be the substrates for 5-LO, even though various polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) like DHA are known to be degraded by 5-LO . We could efficiently detect LTB4-like products generated from DHA and AEA by 5-LO, but could only detect low levels of the products from DHEA and NALA (Fig. 4a). Since SNU-1041 and SNU-1076 have little FAAH activity, we assumed that we could detect LTB4-like products directly generated from DHEA and NALA, not those from DHA and AA converted by FAAH.
In cell co-culture experiment, we observed that inhibition of cell viability by DHEA and NALA treatment was partially reversed in 5-LO siRNA-transfected cells of lower side (Fig. 4c and d). It means that the anti-cancer effects of DHEA and NALA are not mediated by LTB4-like products generated by the 5-LO pathway but mediated by other mechanisms such as ROS production, which should be induced through the processes of oxygenation and peroxidation by 5-LO. If any end-products of 5-LO released to culture medium showed cell killing action, 5-LO siRNA-transfected cells in lower chamber should have been killed as well.
Other studies also observed the increase of intracellular oxidative stress during AA metabolism, independently of produced eicosanoids [31, 32]. Furthermore, 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthase are included in the membrane associated proteins in the eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) superfamily related with glutathione-dependent catalysis . FLAP and LTC4 synthase might cause glutathione depletion (which leads to increased ROS) in the conversion of AA to leukotrienes by 5-LO .
Akt pathway is important in maintaining the cell viability of several cancer cells, including HNSCC cells [25, 26]. Even though it was reported that ROS might affect Akt pathway positively or negatively, depending on tested cell type , we observed the decrease of phosphorylated form of Akt by ROS in our cell model. Since inhibition of p-Akt is likely to lead to the decreased cell viability, we think that cell death of HNSCC cells by DHEA and NALA was mediated at least partially through Akt inhibition by increased ROS production.
The fact that inhibition of 5-LO did not completely reverse the effects of DHEA and NALA suggests that the 5-LO pathway is not the only pathway involved in the DHEA- and NALA-mediated inhibition of HNSCC proliferation and Akt phosphorylation. Considering that the identification of new endocannabinoid receptors is still under investigation, we think that further study is needed to investigate the possibility of the involvement of unknown receptors and other action mechanisms (not off-target effects) in the anticancer effects of some endocannabinoids such as DHEA and NALA in order to enhance their utility as new anticancer agents. In addition, although we suggest the possibility of using the 5-LO activity of cancer cells to kill these cells, further study is needed to investigate the differing roles of the 5-LO pathway in the homeostasis of various types of cancer cells because 5-LO inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for some cancers such as prostate cancer [36–38].
Here, for the first time, we showed that 5-LO might be related to the catabolism of some endocannabinoids, including DHEA and NALA, and observed that 5-LO could mediate the cell-killing action of DHEA and NALA by up-regulating ROS production in HNSCC cells. Since it was identified that DHEA could be physiologically synthesized from DHA in the human body and NALA from AA, the application of proper doses of DHEA and NALA would be clinically effective, non-toxic anti-cancer treatments. Our observations suggest the possibility that DHEA, induced by the dietary supplement DHA, might mediate an anti-cancer effect in some cancers such as HNSCC.
From these findings, we suggest that ROS production induced by the 5-LO pathway mediates the anti-cancer effects of DHEA and NALA on HNSCC cells. Finally, our findings suggest the possibility of a new cancer-specific therapeutic strategy, which utilizes 5-LO activity rather than inhibiting it.
5-LO, 5-lipoxygenase; AEA (Anandamide), Arachidonoyl ethanolamide; CB1, cannabinoid receptor-1; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; DHEA, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide; FAAH, fatty acid amide hydrolase; HNSCC, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; LTB4, Leukotriene B4; NALA, N-arachidonoyl-L-alanine; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; ROS, Reactive oxygen species; siRNA, small interfering RNA; VR1, vanilloid receptor-1
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A1A2003968) and grant no 03-2011-0140 from the SNUH Research Fund.
Availability of data and materials
SW Park conceived of the study and carried out most of experiments and wrote the manuscript. JH Hah participated in the design of the study and acquisition and interpretation of data and helped to draft the manuscript. SM Oh participated in acquisition of data. WJ Jeong participated in acquisition of data and performed the statistical analysis. MW Sung participated in the design of the study and supervised the coordination of the study and helped revise the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Pacher P, Kunos G. Modulating the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease--successes and failures. FEBS J. 2013;280(9):1918–43. doi:10.1111/febs.12260.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Robson PJ. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines. Drug Test Anal. 2014;6(1-2):24–30. doi:10.1002/dta.1529.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bifulco M, Laezza C, Pisanti S, Gazzerro P. Cannabinoids and cancer: pros and cons of an antitumour strategy. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;148(2):123–35. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706632.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Guindon J, Hohmann AG. The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1447–63. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01327.x.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hermanson DJ, Marnett LJ. Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2011;30(3-4):599–612. doi:10.1007/s10555-011-9318-8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Brown I, Cascio MG, Wahle KW, Smoum R, Mechoulam R, Ross RA, et al. Cannabinoid receptor-dependent and -independent anti-proliferative effects of omega-3 ethanolamides in androgen receptor-positive and -negative prostate cancer cell lines. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(9):1584–91. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq151.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gustafsson SB, Lindgren T, Jonsson M, Jacobsson SO. Cannabinoid receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of cannabinoids in human colorectal carcinoma cells: synergism with 5-fluorouracil. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;63(4):691–701. doi:10.1007/s00280-008-0788-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gustafsson K, Sander B, Bielawski J, Hannun YA, Flygare J. Potentiation of cannabinoid-induced cytotoxicity in mantle cell lymphoma through modulation of ceramide metabolism. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7(7):1086–98. doi:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-08-0361.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Patsos HA, Greenhough A, Hicks DJ, Al Kharusi M, Collard TJ, Lane JD, et al. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces COX-2-dependent cell death in apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2010;37(1):187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Contassot E, Tenan M, Schnuriger V, Pelte MF, Dietrich PY. Arachidonyl ethanolamide induces apoptosis of uterine cervix cancer cells via aberrantly expressed vanilloid receptor-1. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93(1):182–8. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2003.12.040.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lenman A, Fowler CJ. Interaction of ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with the endocannabinoid system. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;151(8):1343–51. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707352.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sarker KP, Biswas KK, Yamakuchi M, Lee KY, Hahiguchi T, Kracht M, et al. ASK1-p38 MAPK/JNK signaling cascade mediates anandamide-induced PC12 cell death. J Neurochem. 2003;85(1):50–61.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu G, Ren G, Shi Y. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation. Oncogene. 2011;30(2):139–41. doi:10.1038/onc.2010.502.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khan Z, Khan N, Tiwari RP, Sah NK, Prasad GB, Bisen PS. Biology of Cox-2: an application in cancer therapeutics. Curr Drug Targets. 2011;12(7):1082–93.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Misra S, Sharma K. COX-2 signaling and cancer: new players in old arena. Curr Drug Targets. 2014;15(3):347–59.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Sood S, Yang CS, Li N, Sun Z. Five-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in carcino-genesis and cancer chemoprevention. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2006;6(7):613–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park SW, Heo DS, Sung MW. The shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to 5-lipoxygenase and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase antagonizes the anti-cancer effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in head and neck cancer cells. Cell Oncol. 2012;35(1):1–8. doi:10.1007/s13402-011-0051-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Romano M, Claria J. Cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase converging functions on cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis: implications for cancer therapy. FASEB J. 2003;17(14):1986–95. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0053rev.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarveswaran S, Thamilselvan V, Brodie C, Ghosh J. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via down-regulation of protein kinase C-epsilon. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813(12):2108–17. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2011.07.015.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Van Dross RT. Metabolism of anandamide by COX-2 is necessary for endocannabinoid-induced cell death in tumorigenic keratinocytes. Mol Carcinog. 2009;48(8):724–32. doi:10.1002/mc.20515.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park SW, Kim HS, Hah JW, Jeong WJ, Kim KH, Sung MW. Celecoxib inhibits cell proliferation through the activation of ERK and p38 MAPK in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Anti-Cancer Drugs. 2010;21(9):823–30. doi:10.1097/CAD.0b013e32833dada8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ryu GR, Lee E, Chun HJ, Yoon KH, Ko SH, Ahn YB, et al. Oxidative stress plays a role in high glucose-induced activation of pancreatic stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;439(2):258–63. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.08.046.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park SW, Kim JE, Oh SM, Cha WJ, Hah JH, Sung MW. Anticancer effects of anandamide on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells via the production of receptor-independent reactive oxygen species. Head Neck. 2015;37(8):1187–92. doi:10.1002/hed.23727.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jhaveri MD, Richardson D, Chapman V. Endocannabinoid metabolism and uptake: novel targets for neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152(5):624–32. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707433.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Iida M, Brand TM, Campbell DA, Starr MM, Luthar N, Traynor AM, et al. Targeting AKT with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in non-small cell lung cancer cells with acquired resistance to cetuximab. Cancer Biol Ther. 2013;14(6):481–91. doi:10.4161/cbt.24342.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Srivastava VK, Gara RK, Bhatt ML, Sahu DP, Mishra DP. Centchroman inhibits proliferation of head and neck cancer cells through the modulation of PI3K/mTOR pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404(1):40–5. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.11.049.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao P, Abood ME. GPR55 and GPR35 and their relationship to cannabinoid and lysophospholipid receptors. Life Sci. 2013;92(8-9):453–7. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2012.06.039.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gonzalez-Periz A, Claria J. New approaches to the modulation of the cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase pathways. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(3):297–309.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park SW, Kim HS, Hah JH, Kim KH, Heo DS, Sung MW. Differential effects between cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and siRNA on vascular endothelial growth factor production in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Head Neck. 2010;32(11):1534–43. doi:10.1002/hed.21362.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heller AR, Rossel T, Gottschlich B, Tiebel O, Menschikowski M, Litz RJ, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids improve liver and pancreas function in postoperative cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2004;111(4):611–6. doi:10.1002/ijc.20291.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jian W, Lee SH, Williams MV, Blair IA. 5-Lipoxygenase-mediated endogenous DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2009;284(25):16799–807. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.011841.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lee SH, Williams MV, Dubois RN, Blair IA. Cyclooxygenase-2-mediated DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(31):28337–46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M504178200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deponte M. Glutathione catalysis and the reaction mechanisms of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830(5):3217–66. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.09.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lam BK, Austen KF. Leukotriene C4 synthase: a pivotal enzyme in cellular biosynthesis of the cysteinyl leukotrienes. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2002;68-69:511–20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoon JY, Ishdorj G, Graham BA, Johnston JB, Gibson SB. Valproic acid enhances fludarabine-induced apoptosis mediated by ROS and involving decreased AKT and ATM activation in B-cell-lymphoid neoplastic cells. Apoptosis. 2013;19(1):191–200. doi:10.1007/s10495-013-0906-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meng Z, Cao R, Yang Z, Liu T, Wang Y, Wang X. Inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, zileuton, suppresses prostate cancer metastasis by upregulating E-cadherin and paxillin. Urology. 2013;82(6):1452. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2013.08.060. e7-14.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarveswaran S, Chakraborty D, Chitale D, Sears R, Ghosh J. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase selectively triggers disruption of c-Myc signaling in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2015;290(8):4994–5006. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.599035.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarveswaran S, Ghosh R, Morisetty S, Ghosh J. MK591, a second generation leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor, prevents invasion and induces apoptosis in the bone-invading C4-2B human prostate cancer cells: implications for the treatment of castration-resistant, bone-metastatic prostate cancer. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122805. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122805.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar