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  1. Selection of high-risk subjects for endoscopic screening of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) lacks individual predictive tools based on environmental risk factors.

    Authors: Xiaorong Yang, Chen Suo, Tongchao Zhang, Xiaolin Yin, Jinyu Man, Ziyu Yuan, Hui Chen, Jingru Yu, Li Jin, Xingdong Chen, Ming Lu and Weimin Ye

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:343

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), originally developed as a nutritional assessment tool to evaluate mortality and morbidity in older hospitalized patients (i.e., those aged ≥65 years), is regarded a...

    Authors: Teruhisa Sakamoto, Takuki Yagyu, Ei Uchinaka, Kozo Miyatani, Takehiko Hanaki, Kyoichi Kihara, Tomoyuki Matsunaga, Manabu Yamamoto, Naruo Tokuyasu, Soichiro Honjo and Yoshiyuki Fujiwara

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:342

    Content type: Research article

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  3. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human serum albumin /granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rHSA/G-CSF) in breast cancer following receipt of cytotoxic agents.

    Authors: Shanshan Chen, Yiqun Han, Quchang Ouyang, Jianguo Lu, Qingyuan Zhang, Shun’e Yang, Jingfen Wang, Haixin Huang, Hong Liu, Zhimin Shao, Hui Li, Zhendong Chen, Sanyuan Sun, Cuizhi Geng, Junguo Lu, Jianwei Sun…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:341

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly proliferative, rapidly growing tumor with a poor prognosis, even in cases of limited disease (LD). Timely and accurate high-intensity therapy is necessary. For concurr...

    Authors: Seo Ree Kim, Ji Hyung Hong, Soo-Yoon Sung, Yeo Hyung Kim, Sang Hoon Chun, Hyun Woo Lee, Jung Soo Lee and Yoon Ho Ko

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:340

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Despite advances in treatment, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Further research investigating where MM patients die and characterization of end-of-li...

    Authors: Saqib Abbasi, John Roller, Al-Ola Abdallah, Leyla Shune, Brian McClune, Douglas Sborov and Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:339

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The present study aimed to assess the lower invasiveness of robot-assisted transmediastinal radical esophagectomy by prospectively comparing this procedure with transthoracic esophagectomy in terms of perioper...

    Authors: Shuntaro Yoshimura, Kazuhiko Mori, Motonari Ri, Susumu Aikou, Koichi Yagi, Yukinori Yamagata, Masato Nishida, Hiroharu Yamashita, Sachiyo Nomura and Yasuyuki Seto

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:338

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Complete surgical remission (CSR) is the best predictor of overall survival (OS) for patients with metastatic osteosarcoma. However, metastasectomy has not been widely implemented in China in the last decade d...

    Authors: Lu Xie, Jie Xu, Xiaowei Li, Zuli Zhou, Hongqing Zhuang, Xin Sun, Kuisheng Liu, Xingyu Liu, Kunkun Sun, Yiming Wu, Jin Gu and Wei Guo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:337

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is recommended as the standard treatment for refractory soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, there are comparatively few molecular determinants for predicti...

    Authors: Sang Kyum Kim, Jee Hung Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Young Han Lee, Jung Woo Han, Wooyeol Baek, Ha Young Woo, Min Kyung Jeon and Hyo Song Kim

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:336

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with malignant behaviors that can develop from inert slow growth or low malignancy to aggressive metastasis during follow-up. Rec...

    Authors: Bo Zhou, Jie Xiang, Ming Jin, Xiang Zheng, Guogang Li and Sheng Yan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:334

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the first cancer concerning mortality. Metastatic breast cancer remains a disease with a poor prognosis and about 30% of women diagnosed with an early stage...

    Authors: Mathilde Colombié, Pascal Jézéquel, Mathieu Rubeaux, Jean-Sébastien Frenel, Frédéric Bigot, Valérie Seegers and Mario Campone

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:333

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCNEC) is a rare cancer involving the human papilloma virus (HPV), and has few available treatments. The present work aimed to assess the feasibility ...

    Authors: Shi-Wen Zhang, Rong-Zhen Luo, Xiao-Ying Sun, Xia Yang, Hai-Xia Yang, Si-Ping Xiong and Li-Li Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:332

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains high worldwide despite surgery and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment for the rapidly expanding HCC spectrum. Therefore, it is nec...

    Authors: Weike Gao, Luan Li, Xinyin Han, Siyao Liu, Chengzhen Li, Guanying Yu, Lei Zhang, Dongsheng Zhang, Caiyun Liu, Erhong Meng, Shuai Hong, Dongliang Wang, Peiming Guo and Guangjun Shi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research article

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  13. This study aimed to investigate skin condition, quality of life, and psychological impact of breast cancer patients after radiation therapy. We designed and administered a questionnaire to breast cancer surviv...

    Authors: Chin-Nan Chu, Kai-Chieh Hu, Rick Sai-Chuen Wu and Da-Tian Bau

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:330

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Breast cancer is one of the main malignant tumors that threaten the lives of women, which has received more and more clinical attention worldwide. There are increasing evidences showing that the immune micro-e...

    Authors: Lin Chen, Yuxiang Dong, Yitong Pan, Yuhan Zhang, Ping Liu, Junyi Wang, Chen Chen, Jianing Lu, Yun Yu and Rong Deng

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:329

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Immigrants make up an important share of European populations which has led to a growing interest in research on migrants’ health. Many studies have assessed migrants’ cancer mortality patterns, yet few have s...

    Authors: Katrien Vanthomme, Michael Rosskamp, Harlinde De Schutter and Hadewijch Vandenheede

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:328

    Content type: Research article

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  16. To compare the prognostic value of 7th and 8th editions of the Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) staging system for patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngea...

    Authors: Tao He, Ruo-Nan Yan, Hua-Ying Chen, Yuan-Yuan Zeng, Zhong-Zheng Xiang, Fang Liu, Bian-Fei Shao, Jia-Chun Ma, Xi-Ran Wang and Lei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:327

    Content type: Research article

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  17. ABL-class and JAK-STAT signaling pathway activating alterations have been associated with both a poor post-induction minimal residual disease (MRD) response and an inferior outcome in B-cell acute lymphoblasti...

    Authors: Rimvydas Norvilas, Vaidas Dirse, Ruta Semaskeviciene, Orinta Mickeviciute, Egle Gineikiene, Mindaugas Stoskus, Goda Vaitkeviciene, Jelena Rascon and Laimonas Griskevicius

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:326

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Since the results of the ToGA trial were published, trastuzumab-based chemotherapy has been used as the standard first-line treatment for HER2-positive recurrent or primary metastatic gastric cancer (RPMGC). H...

    Authors: Tae-Hwan Kim, Hun Do Cho, Yong Won Choi, Hyun Woo Lee, Seok Yun Kang, Geum Sook Jeong, Jin-Hyuk Choi, Mi Sun Ahn and Seung-Soo Sheen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:325

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The introduction of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockers (i.e. nivolumab and pembrolizumab) has significantly improved the prognosis of patients with advanced melanoma. However, the long treatment d...

    Authors: E. E. A. P. Mulder, K. de Joode, S. Litière, A. J. ten Tije, K. P. M. Suijkerbuijk, M. J. Boers-Sonderen, G. A. P. Hospers, J. W. B. de Groot, A. J. M. van den Eertwegh, M. J. B. Aarts, D. Piersma, R. S. van Rijn, E. Kapiteijn, G. Vreugdenhil, F. W. P. J. van den Berkmortel, E. Oomen-de Hoop…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:323

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  20. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a special pathological type of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). We conducted this research to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of OCCC and to prov...

    Authors: Chenchen Zhu, Jing Zhu, Lili Qian, Hanyuan Liu, Zhen Shen, Dabao Wu, Weidong Zhao, Weihua Xiao and Ying Zhou

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:322

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. We prepared an anti-p21Ras scFv which could specifically bind with mutant and wild-type p21Ras. However, it cannot penetrate the cell membrane, which prevents it from binding to p21Ras in the cytoplasm. Here, ...

    Authors: Chen-Chen Huang, Fang-Rui Liu, Qiang Feng, Xin-Yan Pan, Shu-Ling Song and Ju-Lun Yang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:321

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Cancer 2021 21:361

  22. Recent studies have suggested the important roles of CD47 and tumor-associated macrophages in the prognosis and immunotherapy of various human malignancies. However, the clinical significance of CD47 expressio...

    Authors: Rami Imam, Qing Chang, Margaret Black, Caroline Yu and Wenqing Cao

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:320

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. The impact of microsatellite status on lymph node (LN) yield during lymphadenectomy and pathological examination has never been assessed in gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we aimed to appraise the associat...

    Authors: Zhenghao Cai, Haiqin Song, Abe Fingerhut, Jing Sun, Junjun Ma, Luyang Zhang, Shuchun Li, Chaoran Yu, Minhua Zheng and Lu Zang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:319

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Icaritin, an active ingredient of the Chinese herb Epimedium, plays an anti-tumor role in liver cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of hepatocellular cells and promoting their apoptosis. In China, phase II ...

    Authors: Hui Li, Yujuan Liu, Wei Jiang, Junhui Xue, Yuning Cheng, Jiyin Wang, Ruixiang Yang and Xiaowei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:318

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Positron-emission tomography (PET) is widely used to detect malignancies, but consensus on its prognostic value in oropharyngeal cancer has not been established. The purpose of this study was to analyze the PE...

    Authors: Kyu Hye Choi, Jin Ho Song, Eun Young Park, Ji Hyun Hong, Ie Ryung Yoo, Youn Soo Lee, Dong-Il Sun, Min-Sik Kim and Yeon-Sil Kim

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:317

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are actively secreted by cells into body fluids and contain nucleic acids of the cells they originate from. The goal of this study was to detect circulating tumor-derived EVs (ctEV...

    Authors: Silvia R. Vitale, Jean A. Helmijr, Marjolein Gerritsen, Hicret Coban, Lisanne F. van Dessel, Nick Beije, Michelle van der Vlugt-Daane, Paolo Vigneri, Anieta M. Sieuwerts, Natasja Dits, Martin E. van Royen, Guido Jenster, Stefan Sleijfer, Martijn Lolkema, John W. M. Martens and Maurice P. H. M. Jansen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have become standard treatment in different tumor entities. However, safe treatment with ICI targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis requires early detection of immune-related adverse ...

    Authors: Luisa Maria Griewing, Claudia Schweizer, Philipp Schubert, Sandra Rutzner, Markus Eckstein, Benjamin Frey, Marlen Haderlein, Thomas Weissmann, Sabine Semrau, Antoniu-Oreste Gostian, Sarina K. Müller, Maximilian Traxdorf, Heinrich Iro, Jian-Guo Zhou, Udo S. Gaipl, Rainer Fietkau…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:314

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is widely used and has proven benefits for women with menopausal symptoms. An increasing number of women with cancer experience menopausal symptoms but the safety of HRT use i...

    Authors: Úna McMenamin, Blánaid Hicks, Carmel Hughes, Peter Murchie, Julia Hippisley-Cox, Tom Ranger, Carol Coupland and Chris Cardwell

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:313

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  29. Forkhead transcription factors control cell growth in multiple cancer types. Foxd1 is essential for kidney development and mitochondrial metabolism, but its significance in renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has not be...

    Authors: Kyle H. Bond, Jennifer L. Fetting, Christine W. Lary, Ivette F. Emery and Leif Oxburgh

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:312

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Breast cancer (BC) presents important physical and psychological challenges that should be appropriately addressed through continuous, integrated and individualized rehabilitation programs after treatment. In ...

    Authors: Chiara Falcicchio, Domenico Di Lallo, Alessandra Fabi, Alessandro Bonucci, Maria Perrone, Andrea Pace, Ambra Corti, Luca Giacomelli and Patrizia Pugliese

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:311

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Chromosomal inversions involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 (EML4) generate a fusion protein EML4-ALK in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The understa...

    Authors: Akihiko Miyanaga, Masaru Matsumoto, Jessica A. Beck, Izumi Horikawa, Takahiro Oike, Hirokazu Okayama, Hiromi Tanaka, Sandra S. Burkett, Ana I. Robles, Mohammed Khan, Delphine Lissa, Masahiro Seike, Akihiko Gemma, Hiroyuki Mano and Curtis C. Harris

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:310

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Crizotinib is the approved treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion. Failure of crizotinib treatment frequently involves drug intolerance or resist...

    Authors: Chih-Hsi Scott Kuo, Pi-Hung Tung, Allen Chung-Cheng Huang, Chin-Chou Wang, John Wen-Cheng Chang, Chien-Ying Liu, Fu-Tsai Chung, Yueh-Fu Fang, Yi-Ke Guo and Cheng-Ta Yang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:309

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many cancer services to consider a transition to a remote format of delivery that is largely untested. Accordingly, we sought to perform a systematic review of the effects of r...

    Authors: Saïd Ibeggazene, Rebecca Turner, Derek Rosario and Liam Bourke

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:308

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary invasive cancer of the liver. During the last decade, the epidemiology of HCC has been continuously changing in developed countries, due to more effe...

    Authors: Walter Mazzucco, Francesco Vitale, Sergio Mazzola, Rosalba Amodio, Maurizio Zarcone, Davide Alba, Claudia Marotta, Rosanna Cusimano and Claudia Allemani

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:307

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. It remains controversial whether patients with Stage II colon cancer would benefit from chemotherapy after radical surgery. This study aims to assess the real effectiveness of chemotherapy in patients with sta...

    Authors: Zhihao Lv, Yuqi Liang, Huaxi Liu and Delong Mo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:306

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Breast cancer and its treatment imposes a significant effect in the quality of life (QOL) of women. Being a developing country with contrasting social and cultural norms to the West, Sri Lankan women may have ...

    Authors: Ravindri Jayasinghe, Ashan Fernando, Umesh Jayarajah and Sanjeewa Seneviratne

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:305

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. The clinical use of patient-reported outcomes as compared to inflammatory biomarkers for predicting cancer survival remains a challenge in palliative care settings. We evaluated the role of the European Organi...

    Authors: Nanako Koyama, Chikako Matsumura, Yoshihiro Shitashimizu, Morito Sako, Hideo Kurosawa, Takehisa Nomura, Yuki Eguchi, Kazuki Ohba and Yoshitaka Yano

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:304

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. The enhanced knowledge of cancer biology has led to considerable advancement in systemic therapy for advanced breast cancer. Recently, studies showed that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, when adde...

    Authors: Reem Alomran, Michelle White, Melissa Bruce, Mathias Bressel, Susan Roache, Lama Karroum, Gerard G. Hanna, Shankar Siva, Shom Goel and Steven David

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:303

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  39. Transmembrane protein 180 (TMEM180) is a newly identified colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific molecule that is expressed very rarely in normal tissue and up-regulated under hypoxic conditions. We developed a mono...

    Authors: Takuya Shiraishi, Koji Ikeda, Yuichiro Tsukada, Yuji Nishizawa, Takeshi Sasaki, Masaaki Ito, Motohiro Kojima, Genichiro Ishii, Ryo Tsumura, Sinji Saijou, Yoshikatsu Koga, Masahiro Yasunaga and Yasuhiro Matsumura

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:302

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. After liver resection (LR), patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are at high risk of recurrence. There are no approved anti-cancer therapies known to affect such risk, highlighting the acute need for nove...

    Authors: David J. Pinato, Alessio Cortellini, Ajithkumar Sukumaran, Tom Cole, Madhava Pai, Nagy Habib, Duncan Spalding, Mikael H. Sodergren, Maria Martinez, Tony Dhillon, Paul Tait, Robert Thomas, Caroline Ward, Hemant Kocher, Vincent Yip, Sarah Slater…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:301

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  41. Neoadjuvant therapy has several potential advantages over upfront surgery in patients with localized pancreatic cancer; more patients receive systemic treatment, fewer patients undergo futile surgery, and R0 r...

    Authors: Q. P. Janssen, J. L. van Dam, B. A. Bonsing, H. Bos, K. P. Bosscha, P. P. L. O. Coene, C. H. J. van Eijck, I. H. J. T. de Hingh, T. M. Karsten, M. B. van der Kolk, G. A. Patijn, M. S. L. Liem, H. C. van Santvoort, O. J. L. Loosveld, J. de Vos-Geelen, B. M. Zonderhuis…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:300

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. Because birth size appears to be positively associated with breast cancer risk, we have studied whether this risk may differ according to molecular breast cancer subtypes.

    Authors: Marie S. Sandvei, Signe Opdahl, Marit Valla, Pagona Lagiou, Ellen Veronika Vesterfjell, Tor Vikan Rise, Tina Syvertsen Overrein, Anette H. Skjervold, Monica J. Engstrøm, Anna M. Bofin and Lars J. Vatten

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:299

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Yanrui Liang, Liying Zhao, Hao Chen, Tian Lin, Tao Chen, Mingli Zhao, Yanfeng Hu, Jiang Yu, Hao Liu and Guoxin Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:298

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Cancer 2021 21:196

  44. The purpose of this study was to construct a new typing model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients based on the B-cell receptor (BCR) and explore its potential molecular mechanism.

    Authors: Wenhua Jiang, Hailong Wang, Shiyong Zhou, Guoqing Zhu, Mingyou Gao, Kuo Zhao, Limeng Zhang, Xiaojing Xie, Ning Zhao, Caijuan Tian, Zhenzhen Zhang, Fang Yan, Yi Pan and Pengfei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:297

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. The burden and trend of thyroid cancer in Vietnam have not been well documented. This study aimed to investigate the trends in incidence and histological pattern of thyroid cancer in Ho Chi Minh City from 1996...

    Authors: Dung X. Pham, Hien D. Nguyen, An H. T. Phung, Tung D. Bui, Thach S. Tran, Bich N. H. Tran, Lan T. Ho-Pham and Tuan V. Nguyen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:296

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. PCNA-associated factor, the protein encoded by the KIAA0101/PCLAF gene, is a cell-cycle regulated oncoprotein that regulates DNA synthesis, maintenance of DNA methylation, and DNA-damage bypass, through the in...

    Authors: Anchalee Tantiwetrueangdet, Ravat Panvichian, Pattana Sornmayura, Surasak Leelaudomlipi and Jill A. Macoska

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:295

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. Standard treatment for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma has not been established, and systemic chemotherapy is administered according to malignant pleural mesothelioma. We previously reported the efficacy of ...

    Authors: Rui Kitadai, Tatsunori Shimoi, Kazuki Sudo, Emi Noguchi, Yusuke Nagata, Ryoichi Sawada, Atsuo Takashima, Narikazu Boku and Kan Yonemori

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:294

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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