This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
A limited role for p53 in modulating the immediate phenotype of Apc loss in the intestine
© Reed et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 01 February 2008
Accepted: 05 June 2008
Published: 05 June 2008
p53 is an important tumour suppressor with a known role in the later stages of colorectal cancer, but its relevance to the early stages of neoplastic initiation remains somewhat unclear. Although p53-dependent regulation of Wnt signalling activity is known to occur, the importance of these regulatory mechanisms during the early stages of intestinal neoplasia has not been demonstrated.
We have conditionally deleted the Adenomatous Polyposis coli gene (Apc) from the adult murine intestine in wild type and p53 deficient environments and subsequently compared the phenotype and transcriptome profiles in both genotypes.
Expression of p53 was shown to be elevated following the conditional deletion of Apc in the adult small intestine. Furthermore, p53 status was shown to impact on the transcription profile observed following Apc loss. A number of key Wnt pathway components and targets were altered in the p53 deficient environment. However, the aberrant phenotype observed following loss of Apc (rapid nuclear localisation of β-catenin, increased levels of DNA damage, nuclear atypia, perturbed cell death, proliferation, differentiation and migration) was not significantly altered by the absence of p53.
p53 related feedback mechanisms regulating Wnt signalling activity are present in the intestine, and become activated following loss of Apc. However, the physiological Wnt pathway regulation by p53 appears to be overwhelmed by Apc loss and consequently the activity of these regulatory mechanisms is not sufficient to modulate the immediate phenotypes seen following Apc loss. Thus we are able to provide an explanation to the apparent contradiction that, despite having a Wnt regulatory capacity, p53 loss is not associated with early lesion development.
p53 is implicated in colorectal cancer as the final step of multi-step carcinogenesis leading to carcinoma formation . However, p53 is also postulated to be involved as a critical negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway, arguing that it should also have a role in the tumour initiation process. To date, crossing p53 deficient mice to the Apc min mouse has variably been reported to have no effect or to modify adenoma formation [2–4]. Consequently there is a need to further clarify the role of p53 function in intestinal neoplasia.
Increased levels of β-catenin lead to increased transcription of p14ARF (in human cells, p19ARF in murine cells) which in turn inactivates Mdm2, allowing the activation of p53 . Active p53 is then able to down-regulate β-catenin and a number of mechanisms for this feedback have been proposed. These include a GSK3β independent mechanism where the p53 target gene Siah1 interacts with APC to promote the degradation of β-catenin . A GSK3β, CK1 dependent mechanism has also been proposed, wherein, p53 activity mediates a faster mobilization of Axin into the degradation complex. This results in enhanced phosphorylation of β-catenin on key NH2-terminal serines and consequently a heightened β-catenin turnover . In both of these scenarios there is, presumably, a requirement for active Apc in order to obtain inhibition of Wnt signalling. However, p53 activity also affects the expression of genes that are known regulators of Wnt signalling e.g. p53 induces Dkk1 expression which is an inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway acting upstream of β-catenin , while Tcf-4 mRNA is down-regulated after increased p53 expression . Thus, in these scenarios Wnt signalling could be inhibited independently to loss of Apc.
Here, we report the consequence of p53 deficiency upon the phenotypes observed immediately following Apc loss. These data clarify the extent to which p53-dependent inhibition of Wnt signalling can occur in this setting, and also indicate whether p53 status is relevant to the tumour initiation process. To achieve this, we utilised mice bearing a conditional Apc allele on either a wild type or p53 deficient background [10, 11] and determined if any p53 dependent feedback loops have a functional consequence immediately following Apc loss. Thus we are able to address whether p53 contributes to the early stages of intestinal neoplasia or whether its role is restricted to the latter stages of carcinogenesis as previously proposed .
All experiments were performed according to UK Home Office regulations. Induction of Apc loss was initiated by giving daily injections (i.p.) of β-napthoflavone (80 mg/kg). Tissues were harvested at the appropriate time point and processed as previously described . Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on paraffin embedded tissues fixed in 4% formaldehyde at 4°C for no more than 24 hours prior to processing. The following antibodies were used for IHC; p53 1:50, MS104 Labvision, β-catenin 1:50, C19220, Transduction Laboratories, cMyc 1:50 sc-764, Santa Cruz, p21CIP1/WAF1 1:500, Santa Cruz Technologies, γ H2AX 1:300, JBW 301, Upstate, lysozyme 1:200, A0099 Dako. Grimelius staining was performed as previously described by Sansom et al. 2004. Apoptosis and mitotic index were scored from H&E stained sections as previously described  and apoptosis was independently confirmed by IHC staining with an antibody against active caspase 3 (1:750; R&D systems data not shown). Nuclear area was characterised from H&E stained sections using the AnalySIS (Soft Imaging Systems) software. Primers for quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) (listed in additional file 1) were designed using primer3 to span intron-exon boundaries wherever possible. QRT-PCR reactions were performed using a chromo4 real-time detector (MJ Research) and standard protocols of 60°C annealing temperature. Triplicate samples from each genotype were amplified in duplicate and the expression levels of the genes of interest were normalised to the housekeeping control gene β-actin and analysed as previously described . Affymetrix Gene Arrays were run at the Cancer Research UK facility at the Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, UK using MOE430_2 chips and triplicate intestinal samples for each genotype 5 days post induction using Cre recombinase; Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+,Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/-, Cre+Apc +/+ p53 +/+ and Cre+Apc +/+ p53 -/-. The array data generated is available from the Affymetrix MIAMEVICE web page .
Results and discussion
P53 expression and regulation following the loss of Apc
Characterisation of p53 deficient Apc deficient intestines
In order to assess the importance of p53 status upon the early consequences of Apc loss we generated p53 null mice possessing the Ah-cre transgene and loxP flanked Apc alleles (designated cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- mice) and conditionally deleted Apc in a p53 deficient environment. Characterisation of induced cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- mice demonstrated that the additional loss of p53 in the context of Apc deficiency did not alter the gross phenotype observed following the loss of Apc (Figure 2).
Induced cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- mice displayed an aberrant crypt-villus architecture possessing an expanded area of morphologically atypical "crypt-like" cells evident on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained material (Figure 2a+b), in a manner indistinguishable from Apc loss alone. Rapid nuclear localisation of β-catenin also occurred in the aberrant areas in both genotypes (Figure 2c+d) and the time scale for loss of differentiation status of enteroendocrine cells (assessed by Grimelius staining) and Paneth and goblet cell mislocalisation (assessed using anti-Lysozyme IHC and alcian blue staining respectively) was identical in both genotypes (Figure 2g–j).
Apc loss (in induced cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ mice) is known to result in an increase in nuclear area primarily in the cells towards the leading edge of the aberrant structure . The precise mechanisms and relevance of this finding is currently not known, but given that up-regulation of p53 occurs within this area, we quantified nuclear area in cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- samples to determine if p53 played any role in this phenotype. Several lines of evidence suggest such a role for p53. For example, p53-dependent G1/S arrest or G2/M arrest are mechanisms employed to prevent genomically unstable cells progressing [18–21]. Furthermore, p53 is up-regulated in response to DNA damage and other stimuli that can result in aneuploidy, with p53-deficient cells failing to arrest and developing centrosome and spindle dysfunction and ultimately aneuploidy [22, 23]. Thus it might be expected that p53 deficiency within our system might result in elevated levels of nuclear atypia. However, no difference was observed in nuclear area within the leading edge of aberrant morphology between induced cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ and cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- intestines (Figure 2q), and this phenomenon is therefore independent of p53 status. Furthermore, IHC analysis demonstrated continued up-regulation of the p53-dependent target gene p21CIP1/WAF1 in the absence of p53 (Figure 2k+l), which is considered to act as a marker of polyploidy .
Given that p53 is a key gene in signalling DNA damage induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the murine small intestine, we also assessed whether the apoptosis that is induced following Apc loss was dependent on p53. This is particularly relevant given our recent data showing that apoptosis induced by Apc loss is dependent on the proto-oncogene c-Myc  and recent publications highlighting the importance of oncogenic activation of DNA checkpoints at the earliest stages of tumourigenesis [26, 27]. Importantly the levels of apoptosis were not affected by p53 deficiency (Figure 2p), proving that p53 is not required for the apoptotic response seen in this setting. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the mitotic index between induced cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ and cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- intestines (Figure 2p) and we believe that p53 is not required for the increase in mitotic index seen following Apc loss. That said induced cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- intestines were significantly elevated compared to wild type while induced cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ intestines were not (Figure 2p). Therefore, there is a trend based solely on the mean levels of mitosis following induction, which suggests p53 may act to repress mitosis following Apc loss. However, we consider the evidence to support such a p53 dependent role to be rather weak.
Characterisation of Wnt signalling in a p53 deficient Apc deficient intestine
We next wished to closely address whether p53 loss was subtly affecting Wnt signalling and therefore employed affymetrix micro-array analysis to compare the transcriptome profiles of induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- and induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ intestines compared to control Cre+Apc +/+ p53 +/+.
Changes unique tox double Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- samples.
Probe set ID
Fold Change in Apc fl/fl p53-/- v WT
resistin like beta
defensin related cryptdin 4
anterior gradient homolog 3 (Xenopus laevis)
ribosomal protein S18
defensin related cryptdin, related sequence 7
GTL2, imprinted maternally expressed untranslated mRNA
ribosomal protein S18
Potassium voltage-gated channel, subfamily Q, member 1
solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3
lectin, galactose binding, soluble 6
adenosine deaminase, tRNA-specific 1
interleukin 1 receptor antagonist
leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 11
DNA segment, Chr 3, ERATO Doi 797, expressed
SET domain containing (lysine methyltransferase) 8
phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class B
Expressed sequence C79267
cytochrome b reductase 1
RNA imprinted and accumulated in nucleus
matrix metallopeptidase 15
RIKEN cDNA E130016E03 gene
sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2
aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2
SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2
RIKEN cDNA 4933431E20 gene
Staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1
RIKEN cDNA 2610207I05 gene
AT rich interactive domain 4B (Rbp1 like)
GTL2, imprinted maternally expressed untranslated mRNA
nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 3
ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 1
very low density lipoprotein receptor
zinc finger protein 60
DCUN1D1 DCN1, defective in cullin neddylation 1, domain containing 1 (S. cerevisiae)
suppressor of Ty 6 homolog (S. cerevisiae)
RIKEN cDNA E130016E03 gene
zinc finger and BTB domain containing 20
tripartite motif protein 2
Ubiquitin specific peptidase 8
SUMO/sentrin specific peptidase 2
We also employed a candidate gene approach, looking at the expression levels of a number of confirmed Wnt target genes to address whether p53 status affects the amplitude of Wnt signalling following Apc loss. This analysis used Q-RTPCR (Figure 3) to show that a subset of Wnt target genes (CyclinD2, Mash2, Lef1, CD44) are also expressed more highly following Wnt signalling activation in the absence of p53. This is again consistent with a loss of a p53-dependent regulatory feedback loop. Notably, from this analysis it is also clear that some but not all aspects of Wnt signalling are affected by p53 status. For example, Tcf4 (data not shown), Frizzled7 and c-Myc were analysed by Q-RTPCR and showed no differences in expression patterns in the additional absence of p53.
We also employed the candidate gene approach to look at the expression of genes proposed to be involved in the p53 dependent regulatory feedback loops using Q-RTPCR i.e. p19arf, Mdm2, Siah1a, Saih1b and Tcf4. The only noteworthy difference detected was reduced levels of Siah1b expression in the induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- compared to the induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ samples (Figure 3) (p < 0.05 T-test using ΔCT values). Siah1 is a known p53 target gene that appears to be significantly up-regulated (~3 fold up-regulated compared to control, p < 0.05 using T-test of ΔCT values) in induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ intestinal samples. Siah1 has previously been shown to interact with APC to promote the degradation of β-catenin, independent of GSK3b phosphorylation of β-catenin , and its up-regulation following Apc loss potentially represents a regulatory feedback mechanism. The reduced levels of expression of Siah1b in Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/-compared to Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ samples confirm p53-dependent expression. However, Siah1b expression is still up-regulated (approximately 2 fold) in Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- samples compared to control Cre+Apc +/+ p53 +/+ samples (Figure 3), suggesting that p53 independent mechanisms also operate to regulate Siah1b expression levels following the loss of Apc. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism of Siah1b regulation requires an interaction with Apc. However, in our experimental system we have also removed Apc, rendering the proposed Siah1b feedback mechanism redundant in this instance.
Finally, we also employed Sam analysis to compare the profiles of induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- and induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ intestines. This identified a number of potential differences using an FDR of 15%, (no differences could be identified using a lower FDR) and we subsequently attempted to confirm the expression patterns for a number of genes that the array data suggested were Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- specific alterations. Of 8 transcripts analysed, two (Slc39a14 and Hapb2) proved to be significantly different between induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 -/- and induced Cre+Apc fl/fl p53 +/+ intestines (Figure 3). The significance in the alteration of these 2 transcripts is currently unknown.
The restricted pattern of p53 up-regulation seen following the loss of Apc (Figure 1) was contrary to expectation, given active Wnt signalling is reported to promote p53 transcription . Our data therefore argues that p53 is not a direct Wnt target, at least in the context analysed here. Notably the upregulation of p53 is associated with a zone of cells showing nuclear atypia, however we show that the development of this atypia is independent of p53, and indeed p21CIP1/WAF1 levels remain high within these cells. Furthermore, our data show that all the immediate phenotypes we observe following Apc loss are unchanged by additional p53 deficiency. With respect to apoptosis, p53 status may be rendered redundant through Wnt-mediated induction of WIP1, a protein which has previously been shown to suppress p53-dependent apoptosis in the intestine .
Despite the absence of phenotypic change, deficiency of p53 did modulate the transcriptome. Most significantly, we observed deregulation of a number of key Wnt pathway components and targets. These observations are consistent with a feedback role for p53 in the Wnt pathway; however, this activity is insufficient to modulate the immediate phenotype of Apc loss, possibly because the feedback mechanisms become swamped in the absence of Apc. Overall, our data suggests p53 status has little impact upon the initiating stages of intestinal disease, but they do provide support for physiological Wnt pathway regulation, albeit overwhelmed in this setting. The possibility remains that p53 status truly regulates Wnt pathway activity in settings of lower levels of Wnt signalling. The lack of a potent role for p53 immediately following Apc loss also provides a ready explanation for the association of p53 mutation with only the later stages of colorectal disease .
We wish to acknowledge M. Bishop, L. Pietzka and D. Scarborough for technical assistance during this project and also Y. Hey and the PICR for microarray analysis. The work was supported by a Cancer Research UK and the Wales Gene Park.
- Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B: Lessons from hereditary colorectal cancer. Cell. 1996, 87 (2): 159-70. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81333-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fazeli A, Steen RG, Dickinson SL, Bautista D, Dietrich WF, Bronson RT, Bresalier RS, Lander ES, Costa J, Weinberg RA: Effects of p53 mutations on apoptosis in mouse intestinal and human colonic adenomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997, 94 (19): 10199-204. 10.1073/pnas.94.19.10199.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Halberg RB, Katzung DS, Hoff PD, Moser AR, Cole CE, Lubet RA, Donehower LA, Jacoby RF, Dove WF: Tumorigenesis in the multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse: redundancy of negative regulators and specificity of modifiers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000, 97 (7): 3461-6. 10.1073/pnas.050585597.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Clarke AR, Cummings MC, Harrison DJ: Interaction between murine germline mutations in p53 and APC predisposes to pancreatic neoplasia but not to increased intestinal malignancy. Oncogene. 1995, 11 (9): 1913-20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oren M, Damalas A, Gottlieb T, Michael D, Taplick J, Leal JF, Maya R, Moas M, Seger R, Taya Y, Ben-Ze'ev A: Regulation of p53: intricate loops and delicate balances. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002, 64 (5–6): 865-71. 10.1016/S0006-2952(02)01149-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu J, Stevens J, Rote CA, Yost HJ, Hu Y, Neufeld KL, White RL, Matsunami N: Siah-1 mediates a novel beta-catenin degradation pathway linking p53 to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein. Mol Cell. 2001, 7 (5): 927-36. 10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00241-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levina E, Oren M, Ben-Ze'ev A: Downregulation of beta-catenin by p53 involves changes in the rate of beta-catenin phosphorylation and Axin dynamics. Oncogene. 2004, 23 (25): 4444-53. 10.1038/sj.onc.1207587.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Shou J, Chen X: Dickkopf-1, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by p53. Oncogene. 2000, 19 (14): 1843-8. 10.1038/sj.onc.1203503.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rother K, Johne C, Spiesbach K, Haugwitz U, Tschop K, Wasner M, Klein-Hitpass L, Moroy T, Mossner J, Engeland K: Identification of Tcf-4 as a transcriptional target of p53 signalling. Oncogene. 2004, 23 (19): 3376-84. 10.1038/sj.onc.1207464.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clarke AR, Purdie CA, Harrison DJ, Morris RG, Bird CC, Hooper ML, Wyllie A: H.Thymocyte apoptosis induced by p53-dependent and independent pathways. Nature. 1993, 362 (6423): 849-52. 10.1038/362849a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sansom OJ, Reed KR, Hayes AJ, Ireland H, Brinkmann H, Newton IP, Batlle E, Simon-Assmann P, Clevers H, Nathke IS, Clarke AR, Winton DJ: Loss of Apc in vivo immediately perturbs Wnt signaling, differentiation, and migration. Genes Dev. 2004, 18 (12): 1385-90. 10.1101/gad.287404.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Merritt AJ, Allen TD, Potten CS, Hickman J: A.Apoptosis in small intestinal epithelial from p53-null mice: evidence for a delayed, p53-independent G2/M-associated cell death after gamma-irradiation. Oncogene. 1997, 14 (23): 2759-66. 10.1038/sj.onc.1201126.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)). Method. 2001, 25 (4): 402-8. 10.1006/meth.2001.1262.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- MIAMEVICE array data. [http://bioinformatics.picr.man.ac.uk/vice/PublicProjects.vice]
- Ireland H, Kemp R, Houghton C, Howard L, Clarke AR, Sansom OJ, Winton DJ: Inducible Cre-mediated control of gene expression in the murine gastrointestinal tract: effect of loss of beta-catenin. Gastroenterology. 2004, 126 (5): 1236-46. 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.03.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shibata H, Toyama K, Shioya H, Ito M, Hirota M, Hasegawa S, Matsumoto H, Takano H, Akiyama T, Toyoshima K, Kanamaru R, Kanegae Y, Saito I, Nakamura Y, Shiba K, Noda T: Rapid colorectal adenoma formation initiated by conditional targeting of the Apc gene. Science. 1997, 278 (5335): 120-3. 10.1126/science.278.5335.120.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dikovskaya D, Schiffmann D, Newton IP, Oakley A, Kroboth K, Sansom O, Jamieson TJ, Meniel V, Clarke A, Nathke IS: Loss of APC induces polyploidy as a result of a combination of defects in mitosis and apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2007, 176 (2): 183-95. 10.1083/jcb.200610099.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Agarwal ML, Agarwal A, Taylor WR, Stark GR: p53 controls both the G2/M and the G1 cell cycle checkpoints and mediates reversible growth arrest in human fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995, 92 (18): 8493-7. 10.1073/pnas.92.18.8493.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Baek KH, Shin HJ, Yoo JK, Cho JH, Choi YH, Sung YC, McKeon F, Lee CW: p53 deficiency and defective mitotic checkpoint in proliferating T lymphocytes increase chromosomal instability through aberrant exit from mitotic arrest. J Leukoc Biol. 2003, 73 (6): 850-61. 10.1189/jlb.1202607.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhivotovsky B, Kroemer G: Apoptosis and genomic instability. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004, 5 (9): 752-62. 10.1038/nrm1443.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aylon Y, Michael D, Shmueli A, Yabuta N, Nojima H, Oren M: A positive feedback loop between the p53 and Lats2 tumor suppressors prevents tetraploidization. Genes Dev. 2006, 20 (19): 2687-700. 10.1101/gad.1447006.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fukasawa K, Choi T, Kuriyama R, Rulong S, Vande Woude GF: Abnormal centrosome amplification in the absence of p53. Science. 1996, 271 (5256): 1744-7. 10.1126/science.271.5256.1744.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kastan MB, Onyekwere O, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Craig RW: Participation of p53 protein in the cellular response to DNA damage. Cancer Res. 1991, 51 (23 Pt 1): 6304-11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bulavin DV, Tararova ND, Aksenov ND, Pospelov VA, Pospelova TV: Deregulation of p53/p21Cip1/Waf1 pathway contributes to polyploidy and apoptosis of E1A+cHa-ras transformed cells after gamma-irradiation. Oncogene. 1999, 18 (41): 5611-9. 10.1038/sj.onc.1202945.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sansom OJ, Meniel VS, Muncan V, Phesse TJ, Wilkins JA, Reed KR, Vass JK, Athineos D, Clevers H, Clarke AR: Myc deletion rescues Apc deficiency in the small intestine. Nature. 2007, 446 (7136): 676-9. 10.1038/nature05674.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahkter S, Richie CT, Zhang N, Behringer RR, Zhu C, Legerski RJ: Snm1-deficient mice exhibit accelerated tumorigenesis and susceptibility to infection. Mol Cell Biol. 2005, 25 (22): 10071-8. 10.1128/MCB.25.22.10071-10078.2005.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Santamaria D, Ortega S: Cyclins and CDKS in development and cancer: lessons from genetically modified mice. Front Biosci. 2006, 11: 1164-88. 10.2741/1871.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rogakou EP, Pilch DR, Orr AH, Ivanova VS, Bonner WM: DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273 (10): 5858-68. 10.1074/jbc.273.10.5858.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- MaxD/view programme. [http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/microarray/maxd/index.html]
- Tusher VG, Tibshirani R, Chu G: Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98 (9): 5116-21. 10.1073/pnas.091062498.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Leung JY, Kolligs FT, Wu R, Zhai Y, Kuick R, Hanash S, Cho KR, Fearon ER: Activation of AXIN2 expression by beta-catenin-T cell factor. A feedback repressor pathway regulating Wnt signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277 (24): 21657-65. 10.1074/jbc.M200139200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phesse TJ, Parry L, Reed KR, Ewan KB, Dale TC, Sansom OJ, Clarke AR: Deficiency of Mbd2 attenuates Wnt induced tumourigenesis via deregulation of a novel Wnt inhibitor, Lect2. Accepted for publication in MCBGoogle Scholar
- Damalas A, Ben-Ze'ev A, Simcha I, Shtutman M, Leal JF, Zhurinsky J, Geiger B, Oren M: Excess beta-catenin promotes accumulation of transcriptionally active p53. Embo J. 1999, 18 (11): 3054-63. 10.1093/emboj/18.11.3054.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Demidov ON, Timofeev O, Lwin HNY, Kek C, Appella E, Bulavin DV: Wip1 Phosphatase Regulates p53-Dependent Apoptosis of Stem Cells and Tumorigenesis in the Mouse Intestine. Cell Stem Cell. 2007, 1: 180-190. 10.1016/j.stem.2007.05.020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/8/162/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.