This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
The spectrum of resistance in SR/CR mice: the critical role of chemoattraction in the cancer/leukocyte interaction
© Riedlinger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 28 September 2009
Accepted: 3 May 2010
Published: 3 May 2010
Spontaneous regression/complete resistance (SR/CR) mice are a unique colony of mice that possess an inheritable, natural cancer resistance mediated primarily by innate cellular immunity. This resistance is effective against sarcoma 180 (S180) at exceptionally high doses and these mice remain healthy.
In this study, we challenged SR/CR mice with additional lethal transplantable mouse cancer cell lines to determine their resistance spectrum. The ability of these transplantable cancer cell lines to induce leukocyte infiltration was quantified and the percentage of different populations of responding immune cells was determined using flow cytometry.
In comparison to wild type (WT) mice, SR/CR mice showed significantly higher resistance to all cancer cell lines tested. However, SR/CR mice were more sensitive to MethA sarcoma (MethA), B16 melanoma (B16), LL/2 lung carcinoma (LL/2) and J774 lymphoma (J774) than to sarcoma 180 (S180) and EL-4 lymphoma (EL-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that this lower resistance to MethA and LL/2 was due to the inability of these cancer cells to attract SR/CR leukocytes, leading to tumor cell escape from resistance mechanism. This escape mechanism was overcome by co-injection with S180, which could attract SR/CR leukocytes allowing the mice to resist higher doses of MethA and LL/2. S180-induced cell-free ascites fluid (CFAF) co-injection recapitulated the results obtained with live S180 cells, suggesting that this chemoattraction by cancer cells is mediated by diffusible molecules. We also tested for the first time whether SR/CR mice were able to resist additional cancer cell lines prior to S180 exposure. We found that SR/CR mice had an innate resistance against EL-4 and J774.
Our results suggest that the cancer resistance in SR/CR mice is based on at least two separate processes: leukocyte migration/infiltration to the site of cancer cells and recognition of common surface properties on cancer cells. The infiltration of SR/CR leukocytes was based on both the innate ability of leukocytes to respond to chemotactic signals produced by cancer cells and on whether cancer cells produced these chemotactic signals. We found that some cancer cells could escape from SR/CR resistance because they did not induce infiltration of SR/CR leukocytes. However, if infiltration of leukocytes was induced by co-injection with chemotactic factors, these same cancer cells could be effectively recognized and killed by SR/CR leukocytes.
SR/CR mice are a unique colony of cancer-resistant mice derived from a single male BALB/c mouse that unexpectedly survived challenges with the extremely aggressive mouse cancer cell line S180 at doses up to several million times greater than the lethal dose for WT mice [1–3]. This resistance was remarkable since S180-induced malignancy with rapid lethality has not been effectively treated previously by any other existing therapy. The SR/CR trait was found to be inheritable in an autosomal dominant manner and has subsequently been bred into over 2000 descendants in several inbred mouse strains. This dominant trait of cancer resistance is mediated primarily by leukocytes of the innate immune system and does not require any prior manipulation. However, the trait could not be mapped to a specific chromosome region after numerous attempts by either backcross or congenic breeding strategies (unpublished results), suggesting that the responsible genetic element may not reside at a fixed chromosomal location. When SR/CR mice are challenged repeatedly with S180, the composition of infiltrating leukocytes remains primarily leukocytes of innate immunity . The leukocytes of SR/CR mice can be transferred to sensitive wild-type (WT) mice for prevention and treatment of established malignancies in immune-compatible recipients without adverse side-effects .
Another intriguing property of the resistance in SR/CR mice is that they are healthy throughout their lifespan suggesting that normal cells in these mice are not harmed by the anticancer response that targets cancer cells with exceptionally high specificity . The cancer resistant phenotype can be retained for life if the mice are frequently challenged with cancer cells. Isolated SR/CR leukocytes display in vitro cytolytic activity against a wide array of lethal transplantable mouse cancer cell lines that are distinct in origin, morphology and cellular properties [2, 3]. Meanwhile, transformed but non-cancerous cells, such as CHO or NIH-3T3, are not killed by the SR/CR leukocytes in vitro.
Upon challenge with S180 tumor cells, the response of SR/CR mice to cancer cells involves three sequential yet distinct cellular processes of the leukocytes . First, there is a rapid infiltration of SR/CR leukocytes to the site of cancer. This process requires the leukocytes to sense a chemoattractant gradient before making unidirectional movement from their storage sites, such as the bone marrow, spleen, peripheral lymph nodes and circulation, toward the higher end of the chemoattractant gradient. Meanwhile, a clearly-defined chemoattractant gradient must be established by cancer cells with the higher end of the gradient at the cancer site. Second, upon arrival at the cancer site, SR/CR leukocytes make tight physical contact with the surface of cancer cells, exemplified by rosette formation between cancer cells and leukocytes. This process requires SR/CR leukocytes to recognize unique surface properties of live cancer cells to allow surface binding between the plasma membranes of leukocytes and cancer cells. Third, upon surface contact, leukocytes deliver effector mechanisms to cause damage to the plasma membranes, swelling and eventual rupture of cancer cells. This final process involves, but is not limited to, several known common effector mechanisms, such as degranulation of neutrophilic granulocytes. The third process is not unique to SR/CR mice since these effector mechanisms have been reported previously in WT mice in the killing of cancer cells [6–8]. However, the first two processes were unique to SR/CR mice since WT leukocytes are unable to respond to the same cancer cells with either infiltration or rosette formation.
Based on the in vitro observations and other in vivo observations, this unique phenotype appears to be a true general resistance against cancer cells that may extend to additional mouse cancer cell lines. It would be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of SR/CR resistance if we were to identify cancer cell lines that could escape this resistance. Here, we report our findings.
Cell Lines and Mouse Strains
S180, EL-4, LL/2, B16, and J774 cell lines were purchased from American Type Culture Collection and propagated in culture according to the manufacturer's protocol. MethA were a kind gift from Dr. Lloyd Old (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, New York). BALB/c mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratory and C57BL/6 mice were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. SR/CR mice (1, 4) were bred at the Animal Research Programs of Wake Forest University (WFU) Health Sciences. Mice were housed in plastic cages covered with individual air filter tops, containing corncob shavings as bedding, allowed free access to water and regular chow and exposed to a 12-hr fluorescent light/dark cycle. All animal procedures were conducted according to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines and the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Animals and with all protocols and procedures approved by the IACUC of the WFU Health Sciences. Mature mice (~2-6 months old) were used for all experiments unless specifically noted elsewhere.
SR/CR In Vivo Resistance
SR/CR and WT mice were injected with the indicated number of cancer cells i.p. and the ability of mice to resist the cells was determined by survival. Moribund mice were euthanized. Cell-free ascites fluid (CFAF) was obtained by collection of ascites fluid from WT mice that developed S180 induced ascites. This ascites fluid was spun twice at 400 g for 5 minutes each, followed by one spin at 3000 g for 5 minutes with the cell free supernatant collected after each spin. This CFAF was then used fresh for subsequent experiments. In the co-injection experiments, 2 ml of CFAF was co-injected with MethA or LL/2 and these mice then received weekly injections of CFAF for the duration of the experiment.
Immune Infiltration in Response to Cancer Cell Lines and CFAF
SR/CR or WT mice were injected i.p. with the indicated cancer cell line or CFAF. Heat inactivated CFAF was obtained by heating CFAF for 15 minutes at 100°C in a water bath. Fractions of CFAF containing molecules > or < 5 kD were obtained using Amicon Ultra 5 k centrifugal devices (Millipore, Billerica, MA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Briefly, total CFAF was placed in the upper chamber of the centrifugal device and then spun at 3000 g for 20 minutes separating the > 5 kD fraction into the top chamber and the < 5 kD fraction into the bottom of the tube. A heat inactivated sample of the < 5 kD fraction was obtained by heating this fraction for 15 minutes at 100°C in a water bath. Six hours after injection the peritoneal cavity was lavaged and the number of cells was quantitated using a cytometer. For each injection group, n >= 4.
Cells from peritoneal lavages were stained with specific antibodies to the cell surface markers Ly6G, NK1.1, F4/80, CD11c, CD19, CD4, and CD8 (BD Pharmingen, San Diego, CA) according to standard procedures recommended by Pharmingen. Briefly, 400,000 cells from the peritoneal lavage were added in 100 μl of FMF medium (PBS w/1% FBS) in 12 × 75 mm flow tubes that were spun at 400 g × 5 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the cells were resuspended in 50 μl of 5 μg/ml FITC-conjugated antibody (Ly6G, NK1.1, F4/80, CD11c, CD19, CD4, or CD8) or FMF medium alone as a control and incubated 30 minutes on ice in the dark. The cells were then washed twice with 100 μl of FMF medium and then resuspended in 300 μl of FMF medium keeping the samples in the dark as much as possible. The samples were then analyzed on a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Bioscience, Mountain View, CA). Forward and side scatter gain settings were tuned to sort live cells from cell fragments. The total value for these seven markers was arbitrarily set at 100% for each sample to allow comparison between groups and for each injection group n >= 4. S180, MethA, and LL/2 were each tested and found to have no reactivity to any of the cell surface markers used.
SR/CR Mice Resist a Broad Array of Lethal Mouse Cancer Cell Lines
Resistance of naïve SR/CR pups to cancer cells other than S180
S180 or CFAF Enhances the Resistance of SR/CR mice to MethA and LL/2
S180 only enhances the resistance of SR/CR mice to LL/2 locally
S180 and CFAF induce leukocyte infiltration in SR/CR mice
In the present study, we characterized the ability of SR/CR mice to resist additional lethal cancer cell lines in vivo, and showed that SR/CR mice are able to resist these cell lines at higher doses than WT mice. However, SR/CR mice were able to resist some cancer cell lines at exceptionally high doses (high-MTD), whereas other cancer cell lines were only resisted at moderate or lower doses (low-MTD). We found that co-injection with either S180 or CFAF, both capable of inducing massive leukocyte infiltration specifically in SR/CR mice, was able to increase the level of resistance of SR/CR mice to cell lines with otherwise low-MTD.
Cancer cells may undergo selection to avoid detection by the immune system, a process termed cancer immuno-editing that may drive the progression of malignancy . A variety of tumor-derived factors may contribute to immunosuppressive processes that may extend immune evasion from the primary site to peripheral sites in patients with cancer . The results from our experiments suggest that cancers with low-MTD escape from SR/CR anticancer immunity because they do not produce sufficient chemoattractants. These low-MTD cancer cell lines are capable of being eradicated in SR/CR mice at lower doses, presumably by the less than 2 × 10e6 resident leukocytes usually present locally in the peritoneal cavity. At higher doses, however, the growth of these low-MTD cancer cell lines may outpace the killing ability of these limited resident leukocytes. This is in contrast to cell lines such as S180 that are able to induce a very large infiltration of leukocytes. The larger numbers of infiltrating SR/CR leukocytes are apparently capable of killing a much larger number of cancer cells.
The results also suggest that there is a diffusible chemoattractant gradient established by some cancer cells. CFAF from S180 contains high levels of these chemoattractants that are specific for SR/CR leukocytes. Our results indicate that the most active chemoattractants are molecules smaller than 5 kD that are heat sensitive. It is currently unclear if these diffusible chemoattractants were produced by active cellular secretion [11, 12], by passive "surface shedding", a physical process, from cancer cells [13–16] or indirectly by the interaction between cancer cells and stromal tissues. Nevertheless, CFAF offers a good platform for further biochemical purification and identification of these chemoattractants. Apparently, chemoattraction of SR/CR leukocytes is a separate process from recognition of the common cancer cell surface properties that allow for local binding and eradication of SR/CR leukocytes, since some cancer cells can lose the former process while retaining the properties of the latter. This ability to induce leukocyte infiltration through chemoattraction appears to be the reason that SR/CR leukocytes are effective as a systemic therapy against established S180 cancers, but are only locally effective against cancers like LL/2.
The cancer/immune cell interaction involves events on either side that influence the ability of the immune system to eradicate the cancer. On the cancer side, malignant lesions may range from being highly immune-attractive (S180) to inducing little immune infiltration (LL/2). Cancer cells may develop mechanisms that prevent migration of leukocytes to the site of the cancer, either by turning off the production of inflammatory molecules that can act as chemoattractants or by producing molecules that actively inhibit immune cells, such as TGF-β . Our results indicate that cancer cells and CFAF may also produce molecules that are directly inhibitory to WT leukocytes (Figure 4C). On the host side, leukocytes themselves can vary significantly in any of the three required stages of leukocyte response. If leukocytes have a defect in infiltration to the cancer site, recognition of the cancer, or deployment of their effector mechanisms an effective anticancer response to protect the host cannot take place. For example, leukocytes may infiltrate the cancer site but may be unable to recognize and kill the cancer cells. This has been reported in some melanoma patients, in whom despite having melanoma-specific T cells infiltrating the tumor lesions, tumor rejection rarely occurs . Additionally, the responsiveness of host leukocytes may be influenced by genetics, aging and environmental factors.
Our SR/CR model system is very interesting in light of many recent reports that there is a positive correlation between tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and the survival of patients with melanoma, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, glioma, and colon cancer [19–23]. It is worth noting that in these examples of human cancers the correlation is with cells of the adaptive immune system, specifically T lymphocytes, while in the SR/CR mouse the resistance mechanism is mediated by the innate immune system. A recent study performed by Galon et al. is particularly intriguing as it specifically links activation of the cellular immune response, including macrophages of the innate immune system, to patient outcomes in colorectal cancer . They find a significant correlation between expression of genes of the Th1 response and a beneficial outcome in risk of relapse after complete removal of the tumor.
The best case scenario for an anticancer protection mechanism in a host would be having cancer cells that secrete a chemoattractant and having leukocytes that can infiltrate, recognize the cancer cells as foreign, and completely destroy the cancer. However, the absence of one or more of these factors could lead to an unfavorable host/cancer interaction enabling the cancer to escape immunosurveillance resulting in progression of the disease. When there is no recognition of cancer cells by leukocytes, manipulation of other processes, such as infiltration, will not improve host survival. However, if infiltration is the only deficiency, as we observe in SR/CR mice challenged with LL/2, local delivery of host leukocytes or establishment of a chemoattractant gradient at the cancer site could achieve therapeutic benefit.
Our results show that SR/CR mice had significantly higher resistance to all cancer cell lines tested in comparison to wild type (WT) mice. However, there was great variation in the number of cells that could be resisted by SR/CR mice across the different cancer cell lines tested. It appears that this variation is based on the ability of the cancer cell lines to induce leukocyte infiltration, as co-injection with chemoattractant factors increased the number of cancer cells that the SR/CR mice could resist. We also demonstrate for the first time that SR/CR mice are able to resist cell lines other than S180 on the initial challenge. Therefore, it appears that the resistance against other cancer cells is also innate in nature since it does not require specific priming with non-self antigens found on S180. This supports the idea that SR/CR mice innately recognize a factor that is common on multiple cancer cell lines but absent on non-neoplastic cells.
The described studies were supported by grants from the Cancer Research Institute, the National Cancer Institute, and the Charlotte Geyer Foundation (to Z.C.). G.R. is supported by National Cancer Institute Training Grant CA79448.
- Koch J, Boschian A, Hau J, Rieneck K: Frequency of the cancer-resistant phenotype in SR/CR mice and the effect of litter seriation. In Vivo. 2008, 22: 565-569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cui Z, Willingham MC, Hicks AM, Alexander-Miller MA, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Miller MS, Weir HM, Du W, DeLong CJ: Spontaneous regression of advanced cancer: identification of a unique genetically determined, age-dependent trait in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100: 6682-6687. 10.1073/pnas.1031601100.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Cui Z: The winding road to the discovery of the SR/CR mice. Cancer Immun. 2003, 3: 14-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hicks AM, Riedlinger G, Willingham MC, Alexander-Miller MA, Von Kap-Herr C, Pettenati MJ, Sanders AM, Weir HM, Du W, Kim J, et al: Transferable anticancer innate immunity in spontaneous regression/complete resistance mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006, 103: 7753-7758. 10.1073/pnas.0602382103.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hicks AM, Willingham MC, Du W, Pang CS, Old LJ, Cui Z: Effector mechanisms of the anti-cancer immune responses of macrophages in SR/CR mice. Cancer Immun. 2006, 6: 11-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hudig D, Ewoldt GR, Woodard SL: Proteases and lymphocyte cytotoxic killing mechanisms. Curr Opin Immunol. 1993, 5: 90-96. 10.1016/0952-7915(93)90086-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young JD, Podack ER, Cohn ZA: Properties of a purified pore-forming protein (perforin 1) isolated from H-2-restricted cytotoxic T cell granules. J Exp Med. 1986, 164: 144-155. 10.1084/jem.164.1.144.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Podack ER, Young JD, Cohn ZA: Isolation and biochemical and functional characterization of perforin 1 from cytolytic T-cell granules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1985, 82: 8629-8633. 10.1073/pnas.82.24.8629.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Egorov IK, Egorov OS: Detection of new MHC mutations in mice by skin grafting, tumor transplantation and monoclonal antibodies: a comparison. Genetics. 1988, 118: 287-298.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dunn GP, Old LJ, Schreiber RD: The immunobiology of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting. Immunity. 2004, 21: 137-148. 10.1016/j.immuni.2004.07.017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim R, Emi M, Tanabe K, Arihiro K: Tumor-driven evolution of immunosuppressive networks during malignant progression. Cancer Res. 2006, 66: 5527-5536. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-4128.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moser B, Willimann K: Chemokines: role in inflammation and immune surveillance. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004, 63 (Suppl 2): ii84-ii89. 10.1136/ard.2004.028316.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hundhausen C, Misztela D, Berkhout TA, Broadway N, Saftig P, Reiss K, Hartmann D, Fahrenholz F, Postina R, Matthews V, et al: The disintegrin-like metalloproteinase ADAM10 is involved in constitutive cleavage of CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and regulates CX3CL1-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Blood. 2003, 102: 1186-1195. 10.1182/blood-2002-12-3775.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsou CL, Haskell CA, Charo IF: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme mediates the inducible cleavage of fractalkine. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 44622-44626. 10.1074/jbc.M107327200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garton KJ, Gough PJ, Blobel CP, Murphy G, Greaves DR, Dempsey PJ, Raines EW: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (ADAM17) mediates the cleavage and shedding of fractalkine (CX3CL1). J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 37993-38001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gale LM, McColl SR: Chemokines: extracellular messengers for all occasions?. Bioessays. 1999, 21: 17-28. 10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(199901)21:1<17::AID-BIES3>3.0.CO;2-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beck C, Schreiber H, Rowley D: Role of TGF-beta in immune-evasion of cancer. Microsc Res Tech. 2001, 52: 387-395. 10.1002/1097-0029(20010215)52:4<387::AID-JEMT1023>3.0.CO;2-W.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rivoltini L, Carrabba M, Huber V, Castelli C, Novellino L, Dalerba P, Mortarini R, Arancia G, Anichini A, Fais S, Parmiani G: Immunity to cancer: attack and escape in T lymphocyte-tumor cell interaction. Immunol Rev. 2002, 188: 97-113. 10.1034/j.1600-065X.2002.18809.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oble DA, Loewe R, Yu P, Mihm MC: Focus on TILs: Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human melanoma. Cancer Immunity. 2009, 9: 3-PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sato E, Olson SH, Ahn J, Bundy B, Nishikawa H, Qian F, Jungbluth AA, Frosina D, Gnjatic S, Ambrosone C, Kepner J, Odunsi T, Ritter G, Lele S, Chen YT, Ohtani H, Old LJ, Odunsi K: Intraepithelial CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and a high CD8+/regulatory T-cell ratio are associated with favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005, 102: 18538-18543. 10.1073/pnas.0509182102.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Liakou CI, Narayanan S, Ng Tang D, Logothetis CJ, Sharma P: Focus on TILs: Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human bladder cancer. Cancer Immun. 2007, 7: 10-PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Dunn GP, Dunn IF, Curry WT: Focus on TILs: Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human glioma. Cancer Immunity. 2007, 7: 12-PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ohtani H: Focus on TILs: Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunity. 2007, 7: 4-PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Galon J, Costes A, Sanchez-Cabo F, Kirilovsky A, Mlecnik B, Lagorce-Page's C, Tosolini M, Camus M, Berger A, Wind P, Zinzindohoue F, Bruneval P, Cugnenc PH, Trajanoski Z, Fridman WH, Page's Fa: Type, Density, and Location of Immune Cells Within Human Colorectal Tumors Predict Clinical Outcome. Science. 2006, 313: 1960-1964. 10.1126/science.1129139.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/10/179/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.