Byrne TN. Spinal cord compression from epidural metastases. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:614–9.
Jacobs WB, Perrin RG. Evaluation and treatment of spinal metastases: an overview. Neurosurg Focus. 2001;11:e10.
Tokuhashi Y, Matsuzaki H, Toriyama S, Kawano H, Ohsaka S. Scoring system for the preoperative evaluation of metastatic spine tumor prognosis. Spine. 1990;15:1110–3.
Tokuhashi Y, Matsuzaki H, Oda H, Oshima M, Ryu J. A revised scoring system for preoperative evaluation of metastatic spine tumor prognosis. Spine. 2005;30:2186–91.
Sioutos PJ, Arbit E, Meshulam CF, Galicich JH. Spinal metastases from solid tumors. Analysis of factors affecting survival. Cancer. 1995;76:1453–9.
Tomita K, Kawahara N, Kobayashi T, et al. Surgical strategy for spinal metastases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26(3):298–306.
Bauer HC, Wedin R. Survival after surgery for spinal and extremity metastases. Prognostication in 241 patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 1995;66:143–6.
North RB, LaRocca VR, Schwartz J, et al. Surgical management of spinal metastases: analysis of prognostic factors during a 10-year experience. J Neurosurg: Spine. 2005;2:564–73.
Van der Linden YM, Dijkstra SP, Vonk EJ, et al. Prediction of survival in patients with metastases in the spinal column. Results based on a randomized trial of radiotherapy. Cancer. 2005;103:320–8.
Quraishi NA, Manoharan SR, Arealis G, et al. Accuracy of the revised Tokuhashi score in predicting survival in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). Eur Spine J. 2013;22(Suppl 1):S21–6.
Pointillart V, Vital JM, Salmi R, et al. Survival prognostic factors and clinical outcomes in patients with spinal metastases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137(5):849–56.
Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connell D et al. Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment scale Cohort Studies. 2012. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp.
Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, et al. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ. 2003;327:557–60.
Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, et al. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997;315:629–34.
Duval S, Tweedie R. Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics. 2000;56:455–63.
Lei M, Liu Y, Yan L, et al. A validated preoperative score predicting survival and functional outcome in lung cancer patients operated with posterior decompression and stabilization for metastatic spinal cord compression. Eur Spine J. 2016;25(12):3971–8.
Lei M, Liu Y, Liu S, et al. Individual strategy for lung cancer patients with metastatic spinal cord compression. Eur Spine J. 2016;42(5):728–34.
Lei M, Liu Y, Tang C, et al. Prediction of survival prognosis after surgery in patients with symptomatic metastatic spinal cord compression from non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:853.
Rades D, Huttenlocher S, Evers JN, et al. Do elderly patients benefit from surgery in addition to radiotherapy for treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression. Strahlenther Onkol. 2012;188(5):424–30.
Rades D, Huttenlocher S, Bajrovic A, et al. Surgery followed by radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for metastatic spinal cord compression from unfavorable tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(5):e861–8.
Rades D, Weber A, Karstens JH, et al. Number of extraspinal organs with metastases: a prognostic factor of survival in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Anticancer Res. 2014;34(5):2503–7.
Rades D, Fehlauer F, Schulte R, et al. Prognostic factors for local control and survival after radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(21):3388–93.
Patchell R, Tibbs PA, Regine WF, et al. Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2005;366:643–8.
Chen YJ, Chang GC, Chen HT, et al. Surgical results of metastatic spinal cord compression secondary to non-small cell lung cancer. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32(15):E413–8.
Leithner A, Radl R, Gruber G, et al. Predictive value of seven preoperative prognostic scoring systems for spinal metastases. Eur Spine J. 2008;17(11):1488–95.
Park JH, Rhim SC, Jeon SR. Efficacy of decompression and fixation for metastatic spinal cord compression: analysis of factors prognostic for survival and postoperative ambulation. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2011;50(5):434–40.
Arrigo RT, Kalanithi P, Cheng I, et al. Predictors of survival after surgical treatment of spinal metastasis. Neurosurgery. 2011;68(3):674–81 discussion 681.
Rades D, Douglas S, Veninga T, et al. Metastatic spinal cord compression in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Prognostic factors in a series of 356 patients. Strahlenther Onkol. 2012;188(6):472–6.
Crnalic S, Löfvenberg R, Bergh A, et al. Predicting survival for surgery of metastatic spinal cord compression in prostate cancer: a new score. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37(26):2168–76.
Chong S, Shin SH, Yoo H, et al. Single-stage posterior decompression and stabilization for metastasis of the thoracic spine: prognostic factors for functional outcome and patients' survival. Spine J. 2012;12(12):1083–92.
Rades D, Hueppe M, Schild SE. A score to identify patients with metastatic spinal cord compression who may be candidates for best supportive care. Cancer. 2013;119(4):897–903.
Ju DG, Zadnik PL, Groves ML, et al. Factors associated with improved outcomes following decompressive surgery for prostate cancer metastatic to the spine. Neurosurgery. 2013;73(4):657–66 discussion 666.
Bakker NA, Coppes MH, Vergeer RA, et al. Surgery on spinal epidural metastases (SEM) in renal cell carcinoma: a plea for a new paradigm. Spine J. 2014;14(9):2038–41.
Bollen L, van der Linden YM, Pondaag W, et al. Prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with symptomatic spinal bone metastases: a retrospective cohort study of 1,043 patients. Neuro-Oncology. 2014;16(7):991–8.
Vanek P, Bradac O, Trebicky F, et al. Influence of the preoperative neurological status on survival after the surgical treatment of symptomatic spinal metastases with spinal cord compression. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015;40(23):1824–30.
Tang Y, Qu J, Wu J, et al. Metastatic spinal cord compression from non-small-cell lung Cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant therapies: a retrospective analysis of outcomes and prognostic factors in 116 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97(17):1418–25.
Chen YJ, Chen HT, Hsu HC. Preoperative palsy score has no significant association with survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with spinal metastases who undergo spinal surgery. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015;10:149.
Meng T, Chen R, Zhong N, et al. Factors associated with improved survival following surgical treatment for metastatic prostate cancer in the spine: retrospective analysis of 29 patients in a single center. World J Surg Oncol. 2016;14(1):200.
Park SJ, Lee CS, Chung SS. Surgical results of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): analysis of functional outcome, survival time, and complication. Spine J. 2016;16(3):322–8.
Huddart RA, Rajan B, Law M, et al. Spinal cord compression in prostate cancer: treatment outcome and prognostic factors. Radiother Oncol. 1997;44(3):229–36.
Williams BJ, Fox BD, Sciubba DM, et al. Surgical management of prostate cancer metastatic to the spine. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;10(5):414–22.
Rades D, Douglas S, Veninga T, et al. A survival score for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression from prostate cancer. Strahlenther Onkol. 2012;188(9):802–6.
Crnalic S, Hildingsson C, Wikström P, et al. Outcome after surgery for metastatic spinal cord compression in 54 patients with prostate cancer. Acta Orthop. 2012;83(1):80–6.
Lee BH, Park JO, Kim HS, et al. Perioperative complication and surgical outcome in patients with spine metastases: retrospective 200-case series in a single institute. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2014;122:80–6.
Sellin JN, Suki D, Harsh V, et al. Factors affecting survival in 43 consecutive patients after surgery for spinal metastases from thyroid carcinoma. J Neurosurg Spine. 2015;23(4):419–28.
Drzymalski DM, Oh WK, Werner L, et al. Predictors of survival in patients with prostate cancer and spinal metastasis. Presented at the 2009 joint spine section meeting. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 2010;13(6):789–94.
Tancioni F, Navarria P, Pessina F, et al. Assessment of prognostic factors in patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) from solid tumor after surgery plus radiotherapy: a single institution experience. Eur Spine J. 2012;21(Suppl 1):S146–8.
Tatsui CE, Suki D, Rao G, et al. Factors affecting survival in 267 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for spinal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014;20(1):108–16.
Petteys RJ, Spitz SM, Goodwin CR, et al. Factors associated with improved survival following surgery for renal cell carcinoma spinal metastases. Neurosurg Focus. 2016;41(2):E13.
Rades D, Janssen S, Käsmann L, et al. Outcomes after irradiation of epidural spinal cord compression due to metastatic thyroid Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2016;36(4):2035–9.
Kato S, Murakami H, Demura S, et al. The impact of complete surgical resection of spinal metastases on the survival of patients with thyroid cancer. Cancer Med. 2016;5(9):2343–9.
Sciubba DM, Gokaslan ZL, Suk I et al. Positive and negative prognostic variables for patients undergoing spine surgery for metastatic breast disease. Eur Spine J 2007 16(10):1659–1667. Epub. 2007 May 8.
Walcott BP, Cvetanovich GL, Barnard ZR, et al. Surgical treatment and outcomes of metastatic breast cancer to the spine. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18(10):1336–9.
Tancioni F, Navarria P, Mancosu P, et al. Surgery followed by radiotherapy for the treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression from breast cancer. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36(20):E1352–9.
Zadnik PL, Hwang L, Ju DG, et al. Prolonged survival following aggressive treatment for metastatic breast cancer in the spine. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011;31(1):47–55.
Ulmar B, Naumann U, Catalkaya S et al. Prognosis scores of Tokuhashi and Tomita for patients with spinal metastases of renal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2006 14(2):998–1004. Epub. 2006 Nov 3.
Jiang L, Ouyang H, Liu X, et al. Surgical treatment of 21 patients with spinal metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Chin Med J. 2014;127(23):4092–6.
Oliveira MF, Rotta JM, Botelho RV. Survival analysis in patients with metastatic spinal disease: the influence of surgery, histology, clinical and neurologic status. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2015;73(4):330–5.
Kataoka M, Kunisada T, Tanaka M, et al. Statistical analysis of prognostic factors for survival in patients with spinal metastasis. Acta Med Okayama. 2012;66(3):213–9.
Aoude A, Fortin M, Aldebeyan S, et al. The revised Tokuhashi score; analysis of parameters and assessment of its accuracy in determining survival in patient afflicted with spinal metastasis. Eur Spine J. 2018;27(4):835–840.
Bartels RH, Feuth T, van der Maazen R, et al. Development of a model with which to predict the life expectancy of patients with spinal epidural metastasis. Cancer. 2007;110(9):2042–9.
Lei M, Li J, Liu Y, et al. Who are the best candidates for decompressive surgery and spine stabilization in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression? Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016;41(18):1469–76.
Chang SS, Luo JC, Chao Y, et al. The clinical features and prognostic factors of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with spinal metastasis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;13(11):1341–5.
Chen H, Xiao J, Yang X, et al. Preoperative scoring systems and prognostic factors for patients with spinal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35(23):E1339–46.
Choi C, Seong J. Predictive factors of palliative radiotherapy response and survival in patients with spinal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut Liver. 2015;9(1):94–102.
Guo Y, Young B, Palmer JL, et al. Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic spinal cord compression: a retrospective study in a rehabilitation setting. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;82(9):665–8.
Moon KY, Chung CK, Jahng TA, et al. Postoperative survival and ambulatory outcome in metastatic spinal tumors : prognostic factor analysis. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2011;50(3):216–23.
Yang SB, Cho W, Chang UK. Analysis of prognostic factors relating to postoperative survival in spinal metastases. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2012;51(3):127–34.
Helweg-Larsen S, Sørensen PS, Kreiner S. Prognostic factors in metastatic spinal cord compression: a prospective study using multivariate analysis of variables influencing survival and gait function in 153 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;46(5):1163–9.
Kumar N, Tan JJ, Zaw AS, et al. Evaluation of scoring systems and prognostic factors in patients with spinal metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Spine J. 2014;14(12):2946–53.
Mizumoto M, Harada H, Asakura H, et al. Prognostic factors and a scoring system for survival after radiotherapy for metastases to the spinal column: a review of 544 patients at Shizuoka Cancer center hospital. Cancer. 2008;113(10):2816–22.
Ogihara S, Seichi A, Hozumi T, et al. Prognostic factors for patients with spinal metastases from lung cancer. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31(14):1585–90.
Rades D, Veninga T, Stalpers LJ, et al. Prognostic factors predicting functional outcomes, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival after radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;64(1):182–8.
Switlyk MD, Kongsgaard U, Skjeldal S, et al. Prognostic factors in patients with symptomatic spinal metastases and normal neurological function. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2015;27(4):213–21.
Tao HM, Ye ZM, Yang DS, et al. Risk factors and prognosis of surgery for spinal metastasis. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2004;26(4):226–30.
Weber A, Bartscht T, Karstens JH, et al. Breast cancer patients with metastatic spinal cord compression: Number of extraspinal organs involved by metastases influences survival. Strahlenther Onkol. 2013:1–4.
Yamashita T, Siemionow KB, Mroz TE, et al. A prospective analysis of prognostic factors in patients with spinal metastases: use of the revised Tokuhashi score. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36(11):910–7.
Yeung YN, Cheung KK, Lam TC, et al. A study of the predictive value of the modified Tokuhashi score in metastatic spinal tumour causing cord compression in a southern Chinese population. J Orthop, Trauma Rehabil. 2014:1–7.
Zhang D, Xu W, Liu T, et al. Surgery and prognostic factors of patients with epidural spinal cord compression caused by hepatocellular carcinoma metastases: retrospective study of 36 patients in a single center. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38(17):E1090–5.
Enkaoua EA, Doursounian L, Chatellier G, et al. Vertebral metastases: a critical appreciation of the preoperative prognostic tokuhashi score in a series of 71 cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22(19):2293–8.
Gakhar H, Swamy GN, Bommireddy R, et al. A study investigating the validity of modified Tokuhashi score to decide surgical intervention in patients with metastatic spinal cancer. Eur Spine J. 2013;22(3):565–8.
Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, et al. Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(24):2542–50.
Horn L, Sandler A. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and antiangiogenic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(16):5040–8.