Goodman ZD, Ishak KG, Langloss JM, Sesterhenn IA, Rabin L. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma. A histologic and immunohistochemical study. Cancer. 1985;55:124–35.
Allen RA, Lisa JR. Combined liver cell and bile duct carcinoma. Am J Pathol. 1949;25:647–55.
Jarnagin WR, Weber S, Tickoo SK, Koea JB, Obiekwe S, et al. Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma: demographic, clinical, and prognostic factors. Cancer. 2002;94:2040–6.
Liu CL, Fan ST, Lo CM, Ng IO, Lam CM, et al. Hepatic resection for combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. Arch Surg. 2003;138:86–90.
Liver Cancer Study Group of J. Primary liver cancer in Japan. Clinicopathologic features and results of surgical treatment. Ann Surg. 1990;211:277–87.
Maeda T, Adachi E, Kajiyama K, Sugimachi K, Tsuneyoshi M. Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma: proposed criteria according to cytokeratin expression and analysis of clinicopathologic features. Hum Pathol. 1995;26:956–64.
Ng IO, Shek TW, Nicholls J, Ma LT. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: a clinicopathological study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998;13:34–40.
Taguchi J, Nakashima O, Tanaka M, Hisaka T, Takazawa T, et al. A clinicopathological study on combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996;11:758–64.
Yano Y, Yamamoto J, Kosuge T, Sakamoto Y, Yamasaki S, et al. Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 26 resected cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2003;33:283–7.
Zhang F, Chen XP, Zhang W, Dong HH, Xiang S, et al. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma originating from hepatic progenitor cells: immunohistochemical and double-fluorescence immunostaining evidence. Histopathology. 2008;52:224–32.
Tickoo SK, Zee SY, Obiekwe S, Xiao H, Koea J, et al. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: a histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization study. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:989–97.
Yap AQ, Chen CL, Yong CC, Kuo FY, Wang SH, et al. Clinicopathological factors impact the survival outcome following the resection of combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Surg Oncol. 2013;22:55–60.
Kim R, Kim SB, Cho EH, Park SH, Park SB, et al. CD44 expression in patients with combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg Treat Res. 2015;89:9–16.
Kim GJ, Kim H, Park YN. Increased expression of Yes-associated protein 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma with stemness and combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma. PLoS One. 2013;8:e75449.
Muramatsu T, Kadomatsu K. Midkine: an emerging target of drug development for treatment of multiple diseases. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171:811–3.
Ota K, Fujimori H, Ueda M, Jono H, Shinriki S, et al. Midkine expression is correlated with an adverse prognosis and is down-regulated by p53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:797–804.
Ren YJ, Zhang QY. Expression of midkine and its clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:2006–10.
Salama RH, Muramatsu H, Zou P, Okayama M, Muramatsu T. Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, produced by the host enhances metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2006;233:16–20.
Rawnaq T, Dietrich L, Wolters-Eisfeld G, Uzunoglu FG, Vashist YK, et al. The multifunctional growth factor midkine promotes proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2014;12:670–80.
Luo J, Wang X, Xia Z, Yang L, Ding Z, et al. Transcriptional factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) promotes the proliferation of glioma cells by up-regulating midkine (MDK). Mol Biol Cell. 2015;26:430–9.
Sakamoto K, Kadomatsu K. Midkine in the pathology of cancer, neural disease, and inflammation. Pathol Int. 2012;62:445–55.
Chiu TJ, Chen YJ, Rau KM, Chen CH, Chien CY, et al. Midkine neurite growth-promoting factor 2 expression as a potential prognostic marker of adjuvant therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Biomarkers. 2013;18:687–98.
Shimada H, Nabeya Y, Tagawa M, Okazumi S, Matsubara H, et al. Preoperative serum midkine concentration is a prognostic marker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:628–32.
Yuan K, Chen Z, Li W, Gao CE, Li G, et al. MDK protein overexpression correlates with the malignant status and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer. Arch Med Res. 2015;46:635–41.
Kato M, Shinozawa T, Kato S, Awaya A, Terada T. Increased midkine expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000;124:848–52.
Kato M, Shinozawa T, Kato S, Endo K, Terada T. Increased midkine expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses. Liver. 2000;20:216–21.
Greene FL, American Joint Committee on Cancer, American Cancer Society. AJCC cancer staging handbook : from the AJCC cancer staging manual. New York: Springer; 2002. p. xv. 469
Kim KH, Lee SG, Park EH, Hwang S, Ahn CS, et al. Surgical treatments and prognoses of patients with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:623–9.
Sanada Y, Shiozaki S, Aoki H, Takakura N, Yoshida K, et al. A clinical study of 11 cases of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma assessment of enhancement patterns on dynamics computed tomography before resection. Hepatol Res. 2005;32:185–95.
Toh CH, Cheung YC, Ng SH, Lin CY, Chan SC, et al. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: a case report. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58:1170–3.
Lee SD, Park SJ, Han SS, Kim SH, Kim YK, et al. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma after surgery. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2014;13:594–601.
Lin G, Toh CH, Wu RC, Ko SF, Ng SH, et al. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma: prognostic factors investigated by computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62:1199–205.
Yoon YI, Hwang S, Lee YJ, Kim KH, Ahn CS, et al. Postresection outcomes of combined hepatocellular carcinoma-cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;20:411–20.
Kadomatsu K, Kishida S, Tsubota S. The heparin-binding growth factor midkine: the biological activities and candidate receptors. J Biochem. 2013;153:511–21.
Shimada H, Nabeya Y, Okazumi S, Matsubara H, Kadomatsu K, et al. Increased serum midkine concentration as a possible tumor marker in patients with superficial esophageal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2003;10:411–4.
Tanabe K, Matsumoto M, Ikematsu S, Nagase S, Hatakeyama A, et al. Midkine and its clinical significance in endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:1125–30.
Obata Y, Kikuchi S, Lin Y, Yagyu K, Muramatsu T, et al. Serum midkine concentrations and gastric cancer. Cancer Sci. 2005;96:54–6.
Ibusuki M, Fujimori H, Yamamoto Y, Ota K, Ueda M, et al. Midkine in plasma as a novel breast cancer marker. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:1735–9.
Li F, Tian P, Zhang J, Kou C. The clinical and prognostic significance of midkine in breast cancer patients. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:9789–94.
Zhu WW, Guo JJ, Guo L, Jia HL, Zhu M, et al. Evaluation of midkine as a diagnostic serum biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:3944–54.
Komuta M, Spee B, Vander Borght S, De Vos R, Verslype C, et al. Clinicopathological study on cholangiolocellular carcinoma suggesting hepatic progenitor cell origin. Hepatology. 2008;47:1544–56.
Villanueva A, Hoshida Y, Toffanin S, Lachenmayer A, Alsinet C, et al. New strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma: genomic prognostic markers. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:4688–94.
Cai X, Zhai J, Kaplan DE, Zhang Y, Zhou L, et al. Background progenitor activation is associated with recurrence after hepatectomy of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatology. 2012;56:1804–16.
Li ZS, Li Q. The latest 2010 WHO classification of tumors of digestive system. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2011;40:351–4.
Gungor C, Zander H, Effenberger KE, Vashist YK, Kalinina T, et al. Notch signaling activated by replication stress-induced expression of midkine drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2011;71:5009–19.
Takenaka H, Horiba M, Ishiguro H, Sumida A, Hojo M, et al. Midkine prevents ventricular remodeling and improves long-term survival after myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H462–9.
Lee CW, Chan KM, Lee CF, Yu MC, Lee WC, et al. Hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with lymph node metastasis: clinicopathological analysis and survival outcome. Asian J Surg. 2011;34:53–62.