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Table 1 Relationships between midkine expression and clinicopathological factors

From: Positive expression of Midkine predicts early recurrence and poor prognosis of initially resectable combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma

Midkine Negative expression Positive expression P
Age
  < 60 15 (53.6%) 13 (46.4%) 0.516
  ≥ 60 15 (62.5%) 9 (37.5%)
Gender
 Male 22 (59.5%) 15 (40.5%) 0.924
 Female 8 (53.3%) 7 (46.7%)
Hepatitis B
 Negative 11 (64.7%) 6 (35.3%) 0.679
 Positive 19 (54.3%) 16 (45.7%)
Hepatitis C
 Negative 20 (55.6%) 16 (44.4%) 0.870
 Positive 10 (62.5%) 6 (37.5%)
Liver cirrhosis
 No cirrhosis 9 (64.3%) 5 (35.7%) 0.753
 Cirrhosis 21 (55.3%) 17 (44.7%)
DM
 Negative 21 (55.3%) 17 (44.7%) 0.753
 Positive 9 (64.3%) 5 (35.7%)
Gall stone
 Negative 29 (61.7%) 18 (38.3%) 0.149
 Positive 1 (20.0%) 4 (80.0%)
CEA
  ≤ 5 27 (60.0%) 18 (40.0%) 0.438
  > 5 3 (42.9%) 4 (57.1%)
CA-199
  ≤ 35 20 (55.6%) 16 (44.4%) 0.870
  > 35 10 (62.5%) 6 (37.5%)
AFP
  ≤ 15 12 (52.2%) 11 (47.8%) 0.473
  > 15 18 (62.1%) 11 (37.9%)
Histology grade
 Well and moderately 21 (55.3%) 17 (44.7%) 0.753
 Poorly 9 (64.3%) 5 (35.7%)
LVI
 Negative 21 (63.3%) 12 (36.4%) 0.253
 Positive 9 (47.4%) 10 (52.6%)
PNI
 Negative 25 (54.3%) 21 (45.7%) 0.226
 Positive 5 (83.3%) 1 (16.7%)
Surgical margin
 <  10 mm 19 (54.3%) 16 (45.7%) 0.679
  ≥ 10 mm 11 (64.7%) 6 (35.3%)
T stage
 T1-T2 28 (66.7%) 14 (33.3%) 0.007*
 T3-T4 2 (20.0%) 8 (80.0%)
N stage
 Negative 28 (57.1%) 21 (42.9%) 1.000
 Positive 2 (66.7%) 1 (33.3%)
AJCC staging
 I-II 26 (65.0%) 14 (35.0%) 0.094
 III-IV 4 (33.3%) 8 (66.7%)
  1. DM diabetes Mellitus, LVI lymph-vascular invasion, PNI peri-neural invasion