This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is overexpressed in human cancers and interacts with YWHAH protein
© Namkoong et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 30 November 2005
Accepted: 18 March 2006
Published: 18 March 2006
Basic studies of oncogenesis have demonstrated that either the elevated production of particular oncogene proteins or the occurrence of qualitative abnormalities in oncogenes can contribute to neoplastic cellular transformation. The purpose of our study was to identify an unique gene that shows cancer-associated expression, and characterizes its function related to human carcinogenesis.
We used the differential display (DD) RT-PCR method using normal cervical, cervical cancer, metastatic cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines to identify genes overexpressed in cervical cancers and identified gremlin 1 which was overexpressed in cervical cancers. We determined expression levels of gremlin 1 using Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemical study in various types of human normal and cancer tissues. To understand the tumorigenesis pathway of identified gremlin 1 protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen, GST pull down assay, and immunoprecipitation to identify gremlin 1 interacting proteins.
DDRT-PCR analysis revealed that gremlin 1 was overexpressed in uterine cervical cancer. We also identified a human gremlin 1 that was overexpressed in various human tumors including carcinomas of the lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells exhibited growth stimulation and increased telomerase activity. Gremlin 1 interacted with homo sapiens tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide (14-3-3 eta; YWHAH). YWHAH protein binding site for gremlin 1 was located between residues 61–80 and gremlin 1 binding site for YWHAH was found to be located between residues 1 to 67.
Gremlin 1 may play an oncogenic role especially in carcinomas of the uterine cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas, and sarcoma. Over-expressed gremlin 1 functions by interaction with YWHAH. Therefore, Gremlin 1 and its binding protein YWHAH could be good targets for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against human cancers.
The identification of molecular alterations in cancerous and pre-cancerous cells has provided insight into the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in tumor initiation and progression . Oncogenes are derived from highly conserved proto-oncogenes that are altered by chromosomal point mutations, gene amplifications, or gene rearrangements . Structural alteration of proto-oncogenes leads to a quantitative or qualitative change in the expression of the corresponding protein product. The signal transduction pathways subverted by oncoproteins govern fundamental cell functions, including proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis .
Although genetic characterization of tumor tissues demonstrates that mutation of the p53 gene is the most common genetic alteration in human cancers, the mutation ratio of the p53 gene in uterine cervical cancer is relatively low [4, 5]. It suggests that there are other oncogenes involved in cervical carcinogenesis. We applied the DDRT-PCR method to discover genes involved in tumorigenesis of human cervical tissue, and identified the new human cervical cancer-related gene, proliferation-inducing gene 2 (PIG-2) (GenBank accession number AY232290), which exhibits close similarity to gremlin 1 cDNA (GenBank accession number NM_013372) in the database.
The Drm (also known as gremlin) and its independently isolated Xenopus homolog, gremlin, a 184-aa protein initially identified through differential screening as a transcriptional down-regulated gene in v-mos-transformed rat embryonic fibroblasts , belongs to the Dan family of secreted glycosylated proteins [7, 8], which contains a highly conserved cysteine knot domain shared by the TGF-β superfamily, PDGF, nerve growth factor, and other secreted proteins . Drm and Dan regulate early development [10–13], tumorigenesis [6, 14, 15], and renal pathophysiology .
Gremlin gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The cerberus and dan subfamily of BMP antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with an eight-membered ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis, body patterning, and tissue differentiation. In mouse, this protein has been shown to relay the sonic hedgehog signal from the polarizing region to the apical ectodermal ridge during limb bud outgrowth .
The action of Drm and Dan on development and possibly diabetic nephropathy is mediated by heterodimerizing with certain BMPs , in particular BMP2, 4, and 7 [7, 8, 16, 18] to subsequently block the ability of BMPs to bind their receptors [7, 18, 19]. Chen et al. have previously shown that the capacity of Drm to suppress transformation and tumorigenesis [6, 14, 15] is mediated by a mechanism that is independent of BMPs and involves both up-regulation of p21 Cip1 and down-regulation of p42/44 MAPK , suggesting additional target(s) for Drm and other Dan family members.
To identify additional target proteins for PIG-2 which exhibits close similarity to gremlin 1, we used a yeast two-hybrid screening approach with a PIG-2-LexA fusion construct as the bait to search for potential PIG2-binding partners. This approach identified homo sapiens tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta polypeptide (14-3-3 eta; YWHAH) [20–28] as one type of the PIG-2-interacting proteins. Thus, the data demonstrate that Gremlin 1 functionally interacts with YWHAH protein to act as an oncoprotein for the genesis of human cancers.
Tissues and cell lines
For Differential display (DD) of mRNA, normal exocervical tissue specimen was obtained from uterine myoma patients during hysterectomy and untreated primary cervical cancer tissues and metastatic lymph node tissues were obtained during radical hysterectomy. Patient consent was obtained from each individual and the use of tissue samples was approved by the ethics committee of our institution. The cervical caner cell line used in DD was CasKi and CUMC-6 which was isolated in our laboratory and maintained as previously described . Mammalian cell lines described below were all obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; Manassas, VA, USA): CasKi is a human cervical cancer cell line. NCI-H441, NCI-H157, and NCI-H2009 are human lung cancer cell lines.
Total RNA was extracted from tissues and cells using RNA extraction kit (RNeasy total RNA kit; Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA) and 0.2 μg of total RNA was used to generate cDNA in reverse transcription reaction (RNAimage™ kit, GenHunter, MA). With the use of the differential display kit (RNAimage™ kit), we performed PCR using oligo-dT primers and arbitrary sequences, each 13 bases in length according to the manufacturer's recommendations . After cDNAs of 3' termini of mRNAs were generated, the PCR products were separated by electrophoreses on a 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Bands representing cDNAs of interest were excised from dried sequencing gel. The cDNAs were eluted in distilled water by boiling for 15 minutes and then were reamplified without [α-35S]dATP, and with 20 μM dNTPs instead of 2 μM dNTPs. From the films, a 282 bp cDNA (referred to as CC282) was identified that was expressed in primary cervical cancer tissue, metastatic lymph node and cervical cancer cell lines but not in normal cervical tissue. CC282 was identified by the use of 5' arbitrary primer H-AP28 (5' -AAGCTTACGATGC-3') and 3' H-T11C anchored primer (5' -AAGCTTTTTTTTTTTC-3') (GenHunter). CC282 was then subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector with the use of the TA cloning system and sequenced with the use of the Sequenase Version 2.0 DNA Sequencing System (United States Biochemical Co., Cleveland, OH).
Northern blot analysis
Total RNA was extracted from fresh human tissues and cell lines using RNeasy total RNA kit (Qiagen). Northern blot analysis was carried out, in which 20 μg of denatured total RNA was electrophoresed on a 1.0% formaldehyde agarose gel and transferred to nylon membrane (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). The mRNA expression of PIG-2 was also assessed in normal human tissues and a variety of human cancer cell lines with the use of prepared membranes obtained from Clontech (Palo Alto, CA) and processed as recommended by the supplier. Human β-actin cDNA control probe provided by Clontech was used as a loading control. All blots were hybridized with the randomly primed [32P]-labeled PIG-2 partial cDNA probe (the CC282 fragment).
To test the effect of PIG-2 gene on HEK 293 cell growth, 1 × 105 wild-type HEK 293 cells, PIG-2 gene transfected HEK 293 cells, and HEK 293 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1 alone were cultured for 13 days. In three independent experiments, cells in triplicate flasks were detached and viable cells counted every other day using trypan blue dye exclusion.
Transformation and morphology
PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells were maintained in culture for 4–5 weeks with the corresponding media replaced every 3 days and monitored microscopically. HEK 293 nontransformed cells were seeded in parallel. To examine cell morphologies, clones of HEK 293 cells stably transfected with the PIG-2 gene were grown to approximately 70% of confluency in culture flasks, and photographed by Olympus (Inha, Japan) phase-contrast microscopy (magnification, × 100).
For immunohistochemistry, cryosections (5 μm thick) of human normal and cancer tissues were used. The sections were deparaffinized with xylene and ethanol. After washing with tap water, the sections were treated with methanolic H2O2 for 30 minutes. Before incubation with primary antibody, the sections were permeabilized by incubation in 0.5% Triton X-100 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 15 minutes and then blocked with normal goat serum for 15 minutes. The sections were incubated with polyclonal anti-Gremlin antibody (IMGENEX, San Diego, CA) for 2 hours at room temperature. After three washes with PBS, the sections were sequentially incubated with biotinylated species-specific secondary antibodies (Vector Laboratories, Burlington, CA) for 1 hour at room temperature, and then avidin and biotinylated horseradish peroxidase according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Aminoethyl carbozole (AEC) was used as the chromogen. After immunostaining, sections were counterstained with hematoxylin. Sections were photographed on an Olympus photomicroscope (Inha, Japan).
Telomerase activity assay
Telomerase activity was measured with the Telo TAGGG Telomerase PCR-ELISA kit (Roche, Germany). The kit provides an immortalized human 293 kidney cell extract as a positive control and 293 cell extract pretreated with RNase as a negative control. All the experiments were performed in triplicate.
Yeast two-hybrid screening and β-galactosidase assay
The MATCHMAKER LexA two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins from the human fetal brain MATCHMAKER cDNA library that could bind a PIG-2 fusion protein (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA). All experiments were performed in the yeast strain EGY48 transformed with p8op-lacZ, which expresses lacZ and leu genes as reporters (Clontech). We inserted a PIG-2 cDNA fragment into a yeast two-hybrid vector (pLexA) (Clontech) containing the LexA DNA-binding domain. Yeast cells expressing the LexA-PIG-2 were transformed with a human fetal brain cDNA library (Invitrogen) that expresses B42AD fusion proteins. After library transformation, cells are plated on minimal synthetic dropout non-induction medium (Sigma) that selects for both the bait (PIG-2) and the AD/library plasmids to improve the chances of detecting AD fusion proteins. To confirm the interaction between PIG-2 and binding protein YWHAH, plasmids expressing PIG-2 and YWHAH were co-transformed into yeast cells. β-galactosidase filter lift assays were performed by replica-plating the co-transformants expressing PIG-2 and YWHAH on Trp-, Leu-, His- selection plates. We used a yeast mating assay to eliminate false positive interactions.
GST-tagged YWHAH protein expression and pull down experiments
GST-tagged proteins were expressed and extracts were prepared as recommended by the manufacturer (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). E.coli (strain BL21) extracts containing GST alone, GST-YWHAH and PIG-2 deletion mutants or GST-PIG-2 and YWHAH deletion mutants were incubated with 30 μl of glutathione-sepharose in 500 μl of lysis buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl [pH 6.8], 50 mM NaCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, 0.1% Triton X-1000, containing 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 5 mM dithiothreitol, 1 mg/ml leupeptin, 1 mg/ml aprotinin, and 1.5 mg/ml pepstatin) for 12 hours at 4°C. Fusion proteins bound to sepharose beads were quantitated by Commassie blue staining on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The fusion protein-bound beads were washed three times with 500 μl of TEN buffer (20 mM Tris HCl [pH 7.4], 0.1 mM EDTA, 100 mM NaCl). For GST pull down experiments, fusion proteins bound to the beads were incubated with proteins from HEK 293 total cell extracts expressing PIG-2 or YWHAH for 12 hours at 4?. The beads were washed using NETN buffer (0.5% Nonidet P-40, 0.1 mM EDTA, 20 mM Tris HCl [pH 7.4], 300 mM NaCl) and eluted with 30 ml of SDS sample buffer (75 mM Tris-HCl [pH 6.8], 0.5% glycerol, 1% SDS, 4% mercaptoethanol, 0.01% bromophenol blue), and boiled for 3 minutes before separating on an 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Eluted proteins were subjected to western blot analysis.
Immunoprecipitation and Western blot
To confirm the interaction between PIG-2 and binding protein YWHAH, HEK 293 cells were co-transfected with pFLAG-CMV (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) encoding the full-length of PIG-2 and pcDNA3.1-Myc-His/YWHAH (Invitrogen). After 48 hours, the cells were harvested and lysed with RIPA buffer (20 mM Hepes [pH 7.2], 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholate, 0.2% SDS, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM Na3VO4, 1 mM NaF, 10% glycerol, 10 g/ml leupeptin, 10 g/ml aprotinin, 1 mM phenymethylsulfonyl fluoride). The lysates were precleared with preimmune serum (mouse) and protein A-Sepharose at 4°C for 30 minutes. Protein concentrations were determined using the BioRad Protein Assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) with bovine serum albumin as a standard. Aliquots (1 mg) of precleared cell lysates were incubated with a 1:500 dilution of anti-FLAG (Sigma, F3165) or 1:500 dilution of anti-Myc (Santa Cruz, 9E10) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and 40 ml of a 1:1 slurry of protein A-Sepharose beads in PBS for 4 hours at 4°C. The immune complexes were collected by centrifugation (2,000 × g for 5 minutes at 4°C), washed five times with a buffer (20 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM EGTA, 150 mM NaCl, 2 mM Na3VO4, 10% glycerol and 1 % Nonidet P-40), and subjected to SDS-PAGE (10%~12%). Separated proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Schleicher and schuell), blocked with 5% nonfat dry milk in TBST buffer (20 mM tris-HCl [pH 7.6], 150 mM NaCl, and 0.5% Tween20) for 2 hours at room temperature. Blot washed two times in TBST buffer, primary antibodies incubated with a 1:1000 dilution of anti-Myc or 1:4000 dilution of anti-FLAG antibodies in TBST for overnight at 4°C. Blot was washed three times in TBST, and then incubated with goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (Sigma), and washed four times in TBST. Bound protein visualized using the Super signal west pico chemiluminescent substrate (PIERCE) followed by autoradiography for 15 seconds~60 minutes.
Identification of the PIG-2 gene and different expressions of PIG-2 in human cervical tissues
Differential expression of PIG-2 in various types of human normal and cancer tissues
Using anti-gremlin polyclonal antibody, normal or cancer tissue from muscle, colon and pancreas were subjected to immunohistochemical experiments. As a result, PIG-2 was over-expressed in all muscle, colon and pancreas cancer tissues. The immunoreactivity was observed mainly in cancer cells with a cytoplasm dominant manner (Figures 2F, 2H and 2I). In corresponding normal muscle and colon tissues, there were very weak expressions of PIG-2 (Figures 2E and 2G). Although further investigation with larger number of samples will be needed, these results indicate that increased expression of the PIG-2 may be associated with human carcinogenesis.
Morphological changes of HEK 293 cells after transfection with PIG-2 gene
Growth stimulation of HEK 293 cells by PIG-2
The rate of PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cell growth was increased compared to those of cells transfected with vector alone or wild-type HEK 293 cells. About 150% of PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells remained viable at 13 days when compared with wild-type HEK 293 cells (Figure 3B).
Telomerase activity in the PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells
Alterations in telomere biology both suppress and facilitate malignant transformation by regulating genomic stability and cellular life span . Telomerase is an enzymatic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts as a reverse transcriptase in the elongation of telomeres. Telomerase activity is almost absent in somatic cells, but it is detected in embryonic stem cells and in the vast majority of tumor cells . To explain the possible oncogenic role of PIG-2-transfected cells, we determined telomerase activity in PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells. Wild-type HEK 293 cells showed detectable telomerase activity (Figure 3C). PIG-2 gene transfection increased telomerase activity up to about 2-fold when compared with HEK 293 wild-type cells (Figure 3C).
PIG-2 interacts with YWHAH in vivo
GST full down assays
To discover genes involved in human cervical carcinogenesis, we applied DDRT-PCR and identified the candidate human cervical cancer-related gene, proliferation-inducing gene 2 (PIG-2) (GenBank accession number AY232290). PIG-2 exhibited close similarity (99%) to gremlin 1 cDNA (GenBank accession number NM_013372) in the database.
Drm/Gremlin and Dan, two homologous secreted antagonists of bone morphogenic proteins, have been shown to regulate early development, tumorigenesis, and renal pathophysiology [6, 10–16]. Topol et al. had previously shown that most tumor-derived cells fail to express Drm  and that in fibroblasts Drm expression is inhibited following oncogene-induced transformation . Human Drm maps to chromosome 15q13-q15, within a region whose loss is associated with metastatic breast cancer and other metastatic carcinomas . These properties suggested that Drm might play an inhibitory role in cell transformation or tumorigenesis. They also demonstrated that overexpression of Drm in the tumor-derived cell lines Daoy (primitive neuroectodermal) and Saos-2 (osteoblastic) significantly inhibited tumorigenesis and provided evidence that Drm can function as a novel transformation suppressor and suggested that this may occur through its affect on the levels of p21 Cip1 and phosphorylated p42/44 MAPK [14, 35]. Recent publication also demonstrated that gremlin mRNA is expressed in non-malignant epithelial cells and lost in many human cancer cell lines via promoter methylation . Similar finding is also reported by other group .
On the contrary, our experiments showed that PIG-2 which is identical with gremlin 1 was overexpressed in various human tumors including carcinomas of the cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas and sarcoma. However, expression of PIG-2 was generally down-regulated in diverse human normal tisues. In our experiments, PIG-2-transfected HEK 293 cells exhibited growth stimulation and increased telomerase activity. Although further investigation with larger number of samples will be needed, it suggests PIG-2 may play a fundamental oncogenic role in multiple body organs.
However, it is unknown how PIG-2 contributes to the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of human tumorigenesis. In this study, we identified an oncogene that is expressed in multiple different human cancers, and investigated whether the oncogene is responsible for the genesis of human cancer. To understand the PIG-2 tumorigenesis pathway, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified the 14-3-3 eta (YWHAH) protein was interacted with PIG-2 [20–28].
This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse, rat and bovine orthologs. This gene contains a 7 bp repeat sequence in its 5' UTR, and changes in the number of this repeat has been associated with early-onset schizophrenia .
The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells. A striking feature of the 14-3-3 proteins is their ability to bind a multitude of functionally diverse signaling proteins, including kinases, phosphatases, and transmembrane receptors. This plethora of interacting proteins allows 14-3-3 to play important roles in a wide range of vital regulatory processes, such as mitogenic signal transduction, apoptotic cell death, and cell cycle control . Acronyms14-3-3 family proteins interact with many signaling molecules, such as MAPK kinase kinase, Raf-1, Wee1, Cdc25, cyclin B1, protein kinase C, IGF-I receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, Bad, and Bcl [38–42], and regulate several signal transduction pathways [43–45]. Also, 14-3-3 proteins help two molecules to interact or to interrupt the association between two molecules by functioning as molecular scaffolds .
Binding of a protein to a 14-3-3 protein may result in stabilization of the active or inactive phosphorylated form of the protein, to a conformational alteration leading to activation or inhibition, to a different subcellular localization or to the interaction with other proteins. Currently genome- and proteome-wide studies are contributing to a wider knowledge of this important family of proteins .
The molecular consequences of 14-3-3 binding are diverse and only partly understood. Disturbance of the interactions with 14-3-3 proteins may lead to disease like cancer. In this study, gremlin 1 binds YWHAH protein in vitro and in vivo. We suspect that this binding may disturb the interactions with 14-3-3 proteins and lead to disease like cancer.
Gremlin 1 was overexpressed in various human tumors and plays a oncogenic role especially in carcinomas of the cervix, lung, ovary, kidney, breast, colon, pancreas and sarcoma. Although further investigation with larger number of samples will be needed, these results indicate that increased expression of the PIG-2 may be associated with human tumorigenesis. Our study suggests that over-expressed gremlin 1 functions by interaction with YWHAH in human tumorigenesis. While further studies are needed to characterize cellular functions and regulatory mechanisms, gremlin 1 is a candidate oncoprotein in the development of many types of human cancers, and gremlin 1 and its binding protein YWHAH could be good targets for developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against human cancers.
This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant (KRF-2002-005-E00013).
- Weinberg RA: Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. CA Cancer J Clin. 1994, 44: 160-170.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bishop JM: Molecular themes in oncogenesis. Cell. 1991, 64: 235-248. 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90636-D.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cooper GM: Oncogenes. 1995, Boston: Jones and Bartlett PublishersGoogle Scholar
- Crook T, Wrede D, Tidy JA, Mason WP, Evans DJ, Vousden KH: Clonal p53 mutation in primary cervical cancer: association with human-papillomavirus-negative tumours. Lancet. 1992, 339: 1070-1073. 10.1016/0140-6736(92)90662-M.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Busby-Earle RMC, Steel CM, Williams ARW, Cohen B, Bird CC: p53 mutations in cervical carcinogenesis – low frequency and lack of correlation with human papillomavirus status. Br J Cancer. 1994, 69: 732-737.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Topol LZ, Marx M, Laugier D, Bogdanova NN, Boubnov NV, Clausen PA, Calothy G, Blair DG: Identification of drm, a novel gene whose expression is suppressed in transformed cells and which can inhibit growth of normal but not transformed cells in culture. Mol Cell Biol. 1997, 17: 4801-4810.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Topol LZ, Bardot B, Zhang Q, Resau J, Huillard E, Marx M, Calothy G, Blair DG: Biosynthesis, post-translation modification, and functional characterization of Drm/Gremlin. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 8785-8793. 10.1074/jbc.275.12.8785.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pearce JJ, Penny G, Rossant J: A mouse cerberus/Dan-related gene family. Dev Biol. 1999, 209: 98-110. 10.1006/dbio.1999.9240.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Isaacs NW: Cystine knots. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1995, 5: 391-395. 10.1016/0959-440X(95)80102-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Capdevila J, Tsukui T, Rodriquez Esteban C, Zappavigna V, Izpisua Belmonte JC: Control of vertebrate limb outgrowth by the proximal factor Meis2 and distal antagonism of BMPs by Gremlin. Mol Cell. 1999, 4: 839-849. 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80393-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dionne MS, Skarnes WC, Harland RM: Mutation and analysis of Dan, the founding member of the Dan family of transforming growth factor β antagonists. Mol Cell Biol. 2001, 21: 636-643. 10.1128/MCB.21.2.636-643.2001.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Khokha MK, Hsu DR, Brunet LJ, Dionne MS, Harland RM: Gremlin is the BMP antagonist required for maintenance of Shh and Fgf signals during limb patterning. Nat Genet. 2003, 34: 303-307. 10.1038/ng1178.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zuniga A, Haramis AP, McMahon AP, Zeller R: Signal relay by BMP antagonism controls the SHH/FGF4 feedback loop in vertebrate limb buds. Nature. 1999, 401: 598-602. 10.1038/44157.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen B, Athanasiou M, Gu Q, Blair DG: Drm/Gremlin transcriptionally activates p21 Cip1 via a novel mechanism and inhibits neoplastic transformation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002, 295: 1135-1141. 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00828-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hanaoka E, Ozaki T, Nakamura Y, Moriya H, Nakagawara A, Sakiyama S: Overexpression of Dan causes a growth suppression in p53-deficient SAOS-2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000, 278: 20-26. 10.1006/bbrc.2000.3758.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lappin DW, Hensey C, McMahon R, Godson C, Brady HR: Gremlins, glomeruli and diabetic nephropathy. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2000, 9: 469-472. 10.1097/00041552-200009000-00002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Michos O, Panman L, Vintersten K, Beier K, Zeller R, Zuniga A: Gremlin-mediated BMP antagonism induces the epithelial-mesenchymal feedback signaling controlling metanephric kidney and limb organogenesis. Development. 2004, 131 (14): 3401-3410. 10.1242/dev.01251.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Merino R, Rodriguez-Leon J, Macias D, Ganan Y, Economides AN, Hurle JM: The BMP antagonist Gremlin regulates outgrowth,chondrogenesis and programmed cell death in the developing limb. Development. 1999, 126: 5515-5522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsu DR, Economides AN, Wang X, Eimon PM, Harland RM: The Xenopus dorsalizing factor Gremlin identifies a novel family of secreted proteins that antagonize BMP activities. Mol Cell. 1998, 1: 673-683. 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80067-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ichimura T, Isobe T, Okuyama T, Takahashi N, Araki K, Kuwano R, Takahashi Y: Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988, 85: 7084-7088.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ichimura-Ohshima Y, Morii K, Ichimura T, Araki K, Takahashi Y, Isobe T, Minoshima S, Fukuyama R, Shimizu N, Kuwano R: cDNA cloning and chromosome assignment of the gene for human brain 14-3-3 protein eta chain. J Neurosci Res. 1992, 31: 600-605. 10.1002/jnr.490310403.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ichimura T, Uchiyama J, Kunihiro O, Ito M, Horigome T, Omata S, Shinkai F, Kaji H, Isobe T: Identification of the site of interaction of the 14-3-3 protein with phosphorylated tryptophan hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1995, 270: 28515-28518. 10.1074/jbc.270.48.28515.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tommerup N, Leffers H: Assignment of the human genes encoding 14-3-3 Eta (YWHAH) to 22q12, 14-3-3 zeta (YWHAZ) to 2p25.1-p25.2, and 14-3-3 beta (YWHAB) to 20q13.1 by in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1996, 33: 149-150. 10.1006/geno.1996.0176.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vincenz C, Dixit VM: 14-3-3 proteins associate with A20 in an isoform-specific manner and function both as chaperone and adapter molecules. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271: 20029-20034. 10.1074/jbc.271.33.20029.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wakui H, Wright AP, Gustafsson J, Zilliacus J: Interaction of the ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor with the 14-3-3 eta protein. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 8153-8156. 10.1074/jbc.272.13.8153.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toyooka K, Muratake T, Tanaka T, Igarashi S, Watanabe H, Takeuchi H, Hayashi S, Maeda M, Takahashi M, Tsuji S, Kumanishi T, Takahashi Y: 14-3-3 protein eta chain gene (YWHAH) polymorphism and its genetic association with schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet. 1999, 88: 164-167. 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19990416)88:2<164::AID-AJMG13>3.0.CO;2-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yu T, Robb VA, Singh V, Gutmann DH, Newsham IF: The 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of the DAL-1/Protein 4.1B tumour suppressor interacts with 14-3-3 proteins. Biochem J. 2002, 365 (PT 3): 783-789.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sato S, Fujita N, Tsuruo T: Regulation of kinase activity of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 by binding to 14-3-3. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277: 39360-39367. 10.1074/jbc.M205141200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim JW, Lee CG, Cho YH, Kim JH, Kim SJ, Kim HK, Park TC, Song SK, Namkoong SE: CUMC-6, a new diploid human cell line derived from a squamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol. 1996, 62: 230-240. 10.1006/gyno.1996.0221.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liang P, Pardee AB: Differential display of eukaryotic messenger RNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction. Science. 1992, 257: 967-971.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Opitz OG: Telomeres, telomerase and malignant transformation. Curr Mol Med. 2005, 5 (2): 219-226. 10.2174/1566524053586626.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wai LK: Telomeres, telomerase, and tumorigenesis-a review. MedGenMed. 2004, 6 (3): 19-PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Topol LZ, Modi WS, Koochekpour S, Blair DG: Drm/Gremlin maps to human chromosome 15 and is highly expressed in adult and fetal brain. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000, 89: 79-84. 10.1159/000015568.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wick W, Petersen I, Schmutzler RK, Wolfarth B, Lenartz D, Bierhoff E, Hummerich JI, Muller DJ, Stangl AP, Schramm J, Wiestler OD, von Deimling A: Evidence for a novel tumor suppressor gene on chromosome15 associated with progression to a metastatic stage in breast cancer. Oncogene. 1996, 12: 973-978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen B, Blair DG, Plisov S, Vasiliev G, Perantoni AO, Chen Q, Athanasiou M, Wu JY, Oppenheim JJ, Yang D: Cutting edge: bone morphogenetic protein antagonists Drm/Gremlin and Dan interact with Slits and act as negative regulators of monocyte chemotaxis. J Immunol. 2004, 173: 5914-5917.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki M, Shigematsu H, Shames DS, Sunaga N, Takahashi T, Shivapurkar N, Iizasa T, Frenkel EP, Minna JD, Fujisawa T, Gazdar AF: DNA methylation-associated inactivation of TGFbeta-related genes DRM/Gremlin,RUNX3, and HPP1 in human cancers. Br J Cancer. 2005, 93: 1029-1037. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6602837.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fu H, Subramanian RR, Masters SC: 14- 3-3 PROTEINS: Structure, function, and regulation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2000, 40: 617-647. 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.40.1.617.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fanger GR, Widmann C, Porter AC, Sather S, Johnson GL, Vaillancourt RR: 14-3-3 proteins interact with specific MEK kinases. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 3476-3483. 10.1074/jbc.273.6.3476.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Craparo A, Freund R, Gustafson TA: 14- 3-3 interacts with the insulin-like growth factor I receptor and insulin receptor substrate I in a phosphoserine-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 11663-11669. 10.1074/jbc.272.17.11663.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Honda R, Ohba Y, Yasuda H: 14-3-3 protein binds to the carboxyl half of mouse wee1 kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997, 230: 262-265. 10.1006/bbrc.1996.5933.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zha J, Harada H, Yang E, Jockel J, Korsmeyer SJ: Serine phosphorylation of death agonist BAD in response to survival factor results in binding to 14-3-3 not BCL-X. Cell. 1996, 87: 619-628. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81382-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang J, Winkler K, Yoshida M, Kornbluth S: Maintenance of G2arrest in the Xenopus oocyte: a role for 14- 3-3-mediated inhibition of Cdc25 nuclear import. EMBO J. 1999, 18: 2174-2183. 10.1093/emboj/18.8.2174.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Aitken A: 14-3-3 and its possible role in co-ordinating multiple signaling pathway. Trends Cell Biol. 1996, 6: 341-347. 10.1016/0962-8924(96)10029-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roy S, McPherson RA, Apolloni A, Yan J, Lane A, Clyde-Smith J, Hancock JF: 14-3-3 facilitates Ras-dependent Raf-1 activation in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1998, 18: 3947-3955.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kosaki A, Yamada K, Suga J, Otaka A, Kuzuya H: 14-3-3 protein associates with insulin receptor substrate 1 and decreases insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in 3T3L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 940-944. 10.1074/jbc.273.2.940.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Braselmann S, McCormick F: Bcr and Raf form a complex in vivo via 14-3-3 proteins. EMBO J. 1995, 14: 4839-4848.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- van Heusden GP: 14-3-3 proteins: regulators of numerous eukaryotic proteins. IUBMB Life. 2005, 57: 623-629.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/6/74/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.