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  1. Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. It is the second cancer cause of death in females and third in males. Production of prolactin has been reported with several tumours. How...

    Authors: Ahmad Reza Soroush, Hosein Mahmood zadeh, Mehrnush Moemeni, Behnam Shakiba and Sara Elmi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:97

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Splenic metastases occur in rare cases with a few case reports of patients in the literature. Generally, splenic metastases mean late dissemination of a disease. Solitary splenic metastases from solid tumors a...

    Authors: Yang Seok Koh, Jung Chul Kim and Chol Kyoon Cho

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:96

    Content type: Case report

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  3. We describe a patient who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate for urinary obstructive symptoms and had histological findings of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with prostatic localization of chron...

    Authors: Riccardo Ballario, Paolo Beltrami, Stefano Cavalleri, Lorenzo Ruggera, Maria Grazia Zorzi and Walter Artibani

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:95

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Uncertainty regarding comorbid illness, and ability to tolerate aggressive therapy has led to minimal enrollment of elderly cancer patients into clinical trials and often substandard treatment. Increasingly, c...

    Authors: William H Hall, Ramanathan Ramachandran, Samir Narayan, Ashesh B Jani and Srinivasan Vijayakumar

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:94

    Content type: Software

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  5. Previous research has indicated that at various organ sites there is a subset of adenocarcinomas that is regulated by beta-adrenergic and arachidonic acid-mediated signal transduction pathways. We wished to de...

    Authors: Howard K Plummer III, Qiang Yu, Yavuz Cakir and Hildegard M Schuller

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:93

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Colon adenocarcinomas are refractory to a number of widely used anticancer agents. Multifactorial mechanisms have been implicated in this intrinsically resistant phenotype, including deregulation of cell death...

    Authors: Raffaella Ravizza, Marzia B Gariboldi, Laura Passarelli and Elena Monti

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:92

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Almost one-third of all penile metastases are detected at the same time as a primary tumor, whereas the remaining two-thirds are detected a mean of 18 months after the discovery of the primary tumor. Cutaneous...

    Authors: Giorgio Pomara, Ilaria Pastina, Maurizio Simone, Paolo Casale, Gabriella Marchetti and Francesco Francesca

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:90

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy for which chronic hepatitis B infection has been defined as the most common etiologic factor. The most frequent metastatic sites are the lung, bone, lymphatics, ...

    Authors: Şahin Çoban, Osman Yüksel, Seyfettin Köklü, Koray Ceyhan, Meltem Baykara and Abdulkadir Dökmeci

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:89

    Content type: Case report

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  9. In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also t...

    Authors: HC Ciria, MS Quevedo, LB Cabrales, RP Bruzón, MF Salas, OG Pena, TR González, DS López and JM Flores

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:87

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG)-immunotherapy has a well-documented and successful clinical history in the treatment of bladder cancer. However, regularly observed side effects, a certain degree of nonresponder...

    Authors: Christian Sänger, Andreas Busche, Gabriele Bentien, Ralf Spallek, Fatima Jonas, Andreas Böhle, Mahavir Singh and Sven Brandau

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:86

    Content type: Research article

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  11. BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70) that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signali...

    Authors: Rudolf Götz, Boris W Kramer, Guadalupe Camarero and Ulf R Rapp

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:85

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Smac/Diablo is a recently identified protein that is released from mitochondria after apoptotic stimuli. It binds IAPs, allowing caspase activation and cell death. In view of its activity it might participate ...

    Authors: Magali Espinosa, David Cantu, Carlos M Lopez, Jaime G De la Garza, Vilma A Maldonado and Jorge Melendez-Zajgla

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:84

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers downstream signaling pathways that regulate many cellular processes involved in tumour survival and growth. Gefitinib ('Iressa') is an orally ...

    Authors: Louise A Knight, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Pauline Whitehouse, Stuart Mercer, Sanjay Sharma, Sharon Glaysher, Penny Johnson and Ian A Cree

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:83

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compar...

    Authors: Wonshik Han, Seok Won Kim, In Ae Park, Daehee Kang, Sung-Won Kim, Yeo-Kyu Youn, Seung Keun Oh, Kuk Jin Choe and Dong-Young Noh

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:82

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Electroporation is currently receiving much attention as a way to increase drug and DNA delivery. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of electrogene therapy using a range of therapeutic genes for the t...

    Authors: Maja Cemazar, Ian Wilson, Gabi U Dachs, Gillian M Tozer and Gregor Sersa

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:81

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Transcription factors are frequently involved in the process of cellular transformation, and many malignancies are characterized by a distinct genetic event affecting a specific transcription factor. This prob...

    Authors: Anna Lagergren, Christina Manetopoulos, Håkan Axelson and Mikael Sigvardsson

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:80

    Content type: Research article

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  17. G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel 1 (GIRK1) is thought to play a role in cell proliferation in cancer, and GIRK1 gene expression level may define a more aggressive phenotype. We detected GIRK1 ex...

    Authors: Iwao Takanami, Yoshimasa Inoue and Masatoshi Gika

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:79

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Tumor-associated antigens recognized by humoral effectors of the immune system are a very attractive target for human cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to molecul...

    Authors: Emiliano Pavoni, Paola Vaccaro, Andrea Pucci, Giorgia Monteriù, Elisa Beghetto, Stefano Barca, Maria Luisa Dupuis, Adolfo De Pasquale Ceratti, Antonio Lugini, Maurizio Cianfriglia, Enrico Cortesi, Franco Felici and Olga Minenkova

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:78

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Several reports indicated that non-thermal electromagnetic radiation such as from mobile phones and base stations may promote cancer. Therefore, it was investigated experimentally, whether 900 MHz electromagne...

    Authors: Angela M Sommer, Joachim Streckert, Andreas K Bitz, Volkert W Hansen and Alexander Lerchl

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:77

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for colon cancer radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to allow for repeated injections. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) being the reference antigen for immunotargeting of these...

    Authors: Véronique Garambois, Fabienne Glaussel, Elodie Foulquier, Marc Ychou, Martine Pugnière, Robin X Luo, Binyam Bezabeh and André Pèlegrin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:75

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The management of unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has previously been difficult as they are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation. The development of imatinib ...

    Authors: Brett Hughes, Desmond Yip, David Goldstein, Paul Waring, Victoria Beshay and Guan Chong

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:74

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Invasion is an important early step of cancer metastasis that is not well understood. Developing therapeutics to limit metastasis requires the identification and validation of candidate proteins necessary for ...

    Authors: Kevin E Sloan, Brenda K Eustace, Jean K Stewart, Carol Zehetmeier, Claudia Torella, Marina Simeone, Jennifer E Roy, Christine Unger, David N Louis, Leodevico L Ilag and Daniel G Jay

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:73

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Precise classification of cancer types is critically important for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classifica...

    Authors: YeeLeng Yap, XueWu Zhang, MT Ling, XiangHong Wang, YC Wong and Antoine Danchin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:72

    Content type: Research article

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  24. This practice guideline was developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in Ontario on the preferred standard radiotherapy fractionation schedule for the treatment of painful bone metastases.

    Authors: Jackson Sai-Yiu Wu, Rebecca KS Wong, Nancy S Lloyd, Mary Johnston, Andrea Bezjak and Timothy Whelan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:71

    Content type: Research article

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  25. SV40 DNA replication system is a very useful tool to understand the mechanism of replication, which is a tightly regulated process. Many environmental and cellular factors can induce cell cycle arrest or apopt...

    Authors: Yahong Jiang, Eun-Young Ahn, Seung Hee Ryu, Dong-Kyoo Kim, Jang-Su Park, Hyun Joo Yoon, Song You, Burm-Jong Lee, Dong Seok Lee and Jee H Jung

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:70

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Although modest improvements in the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be achieved with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT), its value is disputed in the geriatric setting. In this ...

    Authors: José Rodrigues Pereira, Sandro J Martins, Sueli M Nikaedo and Flora K Ikari

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:69

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) patients show a characteristic pattern of antibody responses to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which is regularly associated with this tumor. However, no EBV-speci...

    Authors: Lilia Fliss-Jaber, Radhia Houissa-Kastally, Kamel Bouzouita, Naceur Khediri and Ridha Khelifa

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:68

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. A clinical practice gui...

    Authors: Richard A Malthaner, Rebecca KS Wong, R Bryan Rumble and Lisa Zuraw

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:67

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Lung cancer causes approximately one million deaths each year worldwide and protein p53 has been shown to be involved in the intricate processes regulating response to radiation and/or chemotherapeutic treatme...

    Authors: Michael Bergqvist, Daniel Brattström, Anders Larsson, Patrik Hesselius, Ola Brodin and Gunnar Wagenius

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:66

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Astrocytoma is a common aggressive intracranial tumor and presents a formidable challenge in the clinic. Association of altered DNA methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands with the expression profile ...

    Authors: Jian Yu, Hongyu Zhang, Jun Gu, Song Lin, Junhua Li, Wei Lu, Yifei Wang and Jingde Zhu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:65

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The envelope (Env) protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) can transform cells in culture and is likely to be the main factor responsible for lung cancer induction by JSRV in animals. A recent report ind...

    Authors: A Dusty Miller, Neal S Van Hoeven and Shan-Lu Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:64

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in t...

    Authors: Marilena Celano, Maria Grazia Calvagno, Stefania Bulotta, Donatella Paolino, Franco Arturi, Domenicoantonio Rotiroti, Sebastiano Filetti, Massimo Fresta and Diego Russo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:63

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Mutations of the BRAF gene are the most common genetic alteration in melanoma. Moreover, BRAF mutations are already present in benign nevi. Being overexpressed and mutated, B-Raf is a potential target for the ...

    Authors: Joachim Fensterle, Jürgen C Becker, Tamara Potapenko, Veronika Heimbach, Claudia S Vetter, Eva B Bröcker and Ulf R Rapp

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:62

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. A multitude of mutations have been described and are found to be scattered throughout these two large genes. We describe analysis of

    Authors: Ioulia Belogianni, Angela Apessos, Markos Mihalatos, Evangelia Razi, Stefanos Labropoulos, Andreas Petounis, Vasiliki Gaki, Antonios Keramopoulos, Nikos Pandis, Kyriacos Kyriacou, Andreas Hadjisavvas, Paris Kosmidis, Drakoulis Yannoukakos and Georgios Nasioulas

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:61

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the HER2 receptor is currently being used in breast and other tumor types. Early studies have shown that a variable proportion of cervical carcinoma tumors ...

    Authors: Alma Chavez-Blanco, Victor Perez-Sanchez, Aurora Gonzalez-Fierro, Teresa Vela-Chavez, Myrna Candelaria, Lucely Cetina, Silvia Vidal and Alfonso Dueñas-Gonzalez

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:59

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Cervical carcinomas are second most frequent type of women cancer. Success in diagnostics of this disease is due to the use of Pap-test (cytological smear analysis). However Pap-test gives significant portion ...

    Authors: Galina Volgareva, Larisa Zavalishina, Yulia Andreeva, Georgy Frank, Ella Krutikova, Darya Golovina, Alexander Bliev, Dimitry Spitkovsky, Valeriya Ermilova and Fjodor Kisseljov

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:58

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Limb-salvage is a primary objective in the management of extremity soft-tissue sarcoma in adults and children. Wide-local excision combined with radiation therapy is effective in achieving local tumor control ...

    Authors: Daniel T Fletcher, William C Warner, Michael D Neel and Thomas E Merchant

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:57

    Content type: Case report

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  38. Farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors (FTIs) were originally developed to inhibit oncogenic ras, however it is now clear that there are several other potential targets for this drug class. The FTI tipifarnib (Z...

    Authors: Mitch Raponi, Robert T Belly, Judith E Karp, Jeffrey E Lancet, David Atkins and Yixin Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:56

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Deletions in the long arm of chromosome 11 are observed in a subgroup of advanced stage neuroblastomas with poor outcome. The deleted region harbours the tumour suppressor gene SDHD that is frequently mutated in ...

    Authors: Katleen De Preter, Jo Vandesompele, Jasmien Hoebeeck, Caroline Vandenbroecke, Jöel Smet, Annick Nuyts, Geneviève Laureys, Valérie Combaret, Nadine Van Roy, Frank Roels, Rudy Van Coster, Marleen Praet, Anne De Paepe and Frank Speleman

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:55

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The relative role of anti apoptotic (i.e. Bcl-2) or pro-apoptotic (e.g. Bax) proteins in tumor progression is still not completely understood.

    Authors: Gwenola Bougras, Pierre-François Cartron, Fabien Gautier, Stéphane Martin, Marité LeCabellec, Khaled Meflah, Marc Gregoire and François M Vallette

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:54

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of mild hyperthermia on tumor response and angioneogenesis in an isolated limb perfusion model with a human melanoma xenograft.

    Authors: Joerg Pelz, Marco Mollwitz, Christian Stremmel, Jonas Goehl, Arno Dimmler, Werner Hohenberger and Thomas Meyer

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:53

    Content type: Research article

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  42. S100A4 is a small Ca2+-binding protein of the S100 family with metastasis-promoting properties. Recently, secreted S100A4 protein has been shown to possess a number of functions, including induction of angiogenes...

    Authors: Kjetil Boye Pedersen, Kristin Andersen, Øystein Fodstad and Gunhild Mari Mælandsmo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:52

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The gefitinib compassionate-use programme has enabled >39,000 patients worldwide to receive gefitinib ('Iressa', ZD1839) treatment. This paper reports the outcome of gefitinib treatment in Chinese patients who...

    Authors: Xin-Lin Mu, Long-Yun Li, Xiao-Tong Zhang, Shu-Lan Wang and Meng-Zhao Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:51

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The objective of this article is to present the frequency of cancer in Mexican children who were treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City (IMSS-MC) in the period 1996...

    Authors: Servando Juárez-Ocaña, Guadalupe González-Miranda, Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré, Mario Enrique Rendón-Macías, María del Carmen Martínez-García and Arturo Fajardo-Gutiérrez

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:50

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Tamoxifen is being used successfully to treat breast cancer. However, tamoxifen also increases the risk of developing endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene also decreases breast cancer in wome...

    Authors: Lawrence Levine

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:49

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is an integral part of multi-modality approach in the management of locally advanced breast cancer and it is vital to predict the response in order to tailor the regime for a patient....

    Authors: Chintamani, Vinay Singhal, JP Singh, Ashima Lyall, Sunita Saxena and Anju Bansal

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:48

    Content type: Research article

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