We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.
Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact us so we can address the problem.
Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines
© Roner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 6 February 2009
- Accepted: 7 October 2009
- Published: 7 October 2009
Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf) metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort.
For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results.
The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin.
These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight forward.
- Titanocene Dichloride
- Organotin Polymer
We have synthesized a number of condensation organotin-containing polymers [1–12] and polymeric derivatives of cisplatin [13–17] emphasizing biological activities. Many of these have shown outstanding anticancer and antiviral agents properties as well as the expected antibacterial properties. In some of these efforts we emphasized the use of Lewis bases that themselves offered some biological activity including the known antiviral agent acyclovir and a number of proven antibacterial agents such as norfloxacin, ampicillin, tricarcillin, and ciprofloxacin. Our overall rationale for employing known drugs coupled with metal-containing moieties with characterized biological effects is to create a unique compound that can interact with the target (cancer, bacteria, virus) at several venues. By targeting multiple sites the possibility that the target will become resistant to the treatment is greatly reduced increasing the effectiveness of the treatment.
We also recently described the synthesis and ability to arrest the growth of various cell lines for the analogous polyethers derived from Group IVB metallocene dichlorides.
Dienestrol,(4- [4-(hydroxyphenyl)hexa-2,4-dien-3-yl]phenol, is one of the most widely utilized sex hormones. It was initially synthesized in 1939 and initially patented by both Boots and Hoffman-La Roche in 1949 [22, 23]. In the popular literature it is often confused with DES, diethylstilbestrol, but it is a distinct hormone with its own chemical and biological properties. It is sold under a variety of tradenames including Farmacyrol, Lipamone, and Retalon-Oral.
In 1956 a patent described the synthesis of antienzymic polymeric materials from the reaction of various diols including dienestrol from reaction with phosphoric and thiophosphoric acid . It is not clear that any characterization of the product occurred since it was simply one of about 30 diol, diamine, and alcohol-amine-containing Lewis bases included in the patent.
More recently, we described the synthesis of various polyphosphate and polyphosphate esters from the reaction of phosphorous acid chlorides with dienestrol .
Synthesis and Physical Characterization
Polymerization was accomplished employing the classical or aqueous interfacial polycondensation system. Briefly, an aqueous solution (30 mL) containing the dienestrol (0.00300 mol) and sodium hydroxide (0.0060 mole) was transferred to a one quart Kimax emulsifying jar fitted on top of a Waring Blender (model 1120; no load speed of about 18,000 rpm; reactions were carried out at about 25°C). Stirring was begun and a chloroform solution (30 ml) containing the metallocene dihalide (0.00300 mol) was rapidly added (about 3-4 seconds) through a hole in the jar lid using a powder funnel. The resulting solution was blended for 15 seconds. The precipitate was recovered using vacuum filtration and washed several times with deionized water and chloroform to remove unreacted materials and unwanted by-products. The solid was washed onto a glass petri dish and allowed to dry at room temperature.
Chain length was determined employing light scattering photometry using a Brice-Phoenix BP 3000 Universal Light Scattering Photometer. Refractive indicies were obtained using a Bauch & Lomb Model 3-L refractometer. FTIR spectra were obtained employing KBr pellets using a Mattson Instruments galaxy Series 4020 FTIR using 32 scans and an instrumental resolution of 4 cm-1.
High resolution electron impact positive ion matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight, HR MALDI-TOF, mass spectrometry was carried out employing a Voyager-DE STR BioSpectrometer, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. The standard settings were used with a linear mode of operation and an accelerating voltage of 25,000 volts; grid voltage 90% and an acquisition mass range of 100 to 2,000 daltons. Two hundred shots were typically taken for each spectrum. Several matrix materials were employed but here only results employing α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid are included for the hafnocene and zirconocene products and the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid for the titanocene product.
Product yield and molecular weight as a function of metallocene.
3.3 × 107
6.7 × 106
2.1 × 105
For testing of the compounds, cells were harvested, counted, and plated into 96-well plates at 1 × 104 cells per well in MEM-Eagles supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C in a 5% carbon dioxide atmosphere. A stock solution of the compound was prepared in DMSO at a known concentration. On day two 100 μL MEM-Eagles supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and the indicated drug concentrations was added. Seventy-two hours later the cells were assayed for proliferation using the CellTiter 96® Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay by Promega Corporation. The assay is a colorimetric method for determining the number of viable cells in proliferation, cytotoxicity or chemosensitivity assays. The assay solution contains a tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS(a)] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine ethosulfate; PES). Assays are performed by adding a small amount of the CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Reagent directly to culture wells, incubating for 1-4 hours and then recording absorbance at 490 nm with a 96-well plate reader. The quantity of formazan product as measured by the amount of 490 nm absorbance is directly proportional to the number of living cells in culture.
All cytotoxicity values are calculated against a base-line value for each line that was generated from "mock-treatment" of the normal and tumor cells lines with media supplemented with all diluents used to prepare the chemotherapeutic compounds. For example, if the compounds were dissolved in DMSO and serial dilutions prepared in MEM to treat the cells, then the mock-treated cells were "treated" with the same serial dilutions of DMSO without added chemotherapeutic compound. This was done to ensure that any cytotoxicity observed was due to the activity of the compound and not the diluents. For the studies reported here, the mock-treatment never resulted in a loss of cell viability of more than one percent, demonstrating that the activity observed was not due to cytotoxicity of any of the diluents used, but was due to activity of the tested compounds.
Synthesis and Structural Characterization
The products were synthesized in average yields in the same range as found for the synthesis of the analogous products except employing DES as the diol in place of dienestrol (Table 1).
The polymers are not soluble in DMF, acetone, and DMF, all solvents that typically dissolved other similar organometallic condensation polymers, and only partially soluble in DMSO. In comparison to the analogous organotin-diethylstilbestrol products, the Group IVB metallocene products have poorer solubilities. This trend is found for other polymers synthesized by us where the metallocene-containing polymers exhibit poor solubility in comparison to the analogous organotin polymers.17 The products are soluble in HMPA. Results appear in Table 1. The products are medium to long chained products.
The products from titanocene and zirconocene are stable in HMPA solution for three months whereas the hanfocene product was stable for 2 months and at month three there was a modest loss in molecular weight from 2.1 × 105 to 1.7 × 105.
Vibrational band assignments for titanocene dichloride and the products of Group IVB metallocene dichlorides and dienestrol
CH St. Ar
3100, 3027, 3005
3069, 3029, 3005
CH St. Alip
2972, 2933, 2910, 2852
2972, 2910, 2852
2970, 2912, 2854
2970, 2912, 2866
C = C St. Alip
C = C St. Ar
(Cp) CC St
CH i.p. Bend
CH o.p. Bend
CH i.p. Bend
CC i.p. Bend
CH o.p. Bend
CH o.p. Bend
CC o.p. Bend
A modified MALDI MS analysis was carried out on the products and reactants [55, 56] The most intense ion fragment for dienestrol itself was found at 265 (all ion fragments are given in m/z or m/e = 1 in Daltons) assigned to dienestrol. The next intense was at 212 assigned to dienestrol minus 2 C2H4.
Most abundant ion fragment clusters for the product from titanocene dichloride and dienestrol; 100 to 1,000 Da.
There is some loss of the cyclopentadienyl, Cp, group. This is not unexpected in light of other MS studies that show that metallocene associated Cp groups are especially sensitive to removal from the metallocene moieties .
Isotopic abundance matches for ion fragment clusters centering about 529 and 551 daltons.
% Nat Abu
% Rel Abun
% Rel Abu
MALDI MS Results for the mass range of 10,000 to 160,000 Da for the product of titanocene dichloride and dienestrol.
The presence of these high mass ion fragments is consistent with the polymeric nature of the tested material. A number of these ion fragments may be entire chains such as those at 17068, 21940, 22219, 28310, 49238, 56009, 88777, and 142044 consistent with the "soft" nature of MALDI MS.
The results are consistent with other studies where chain scission occurs mainly at the heteroatoms. They are also consistent with the assigned product structure.
Cell Line Results
Cell line Characteristics and Identification
Breast pleural effusion
Breast pleural effusion
Lung normal embryonic
Continuous cell line of highly contact-inhibited cells
Different measures are employed in the evaluation of cell line results. Here we use the two most widely employed- GI50 values which is the lowest concentration where growth is inhibited by 50% and the Chemotherapeutic Index, CI50 which is a measure of the amount needed to inhibit 50% cell growth, GI50, for the normal cell lines, here WI-38 and 3T3 cell lines, divided by the amount needed to inhibit 50% cell growth for one of the cancer cell lines. It is to be noted that different researchers generally emphasize one of these measures over the other with neither measure universally accepted. Thus, results from both of these measures are presented. [see Additional file 1: Table S1] contains the GI50 values for the polymers, DES, and cisplatin.
The GI50 values for the polymers are significantly lower than for cisplatin with the exception of the WI-38 healthy cells. The GI50 values for the metallocene monomers are much higher than for the analogous polymers. They are in the general range of the dienestrol itself. Further, with respect to the polymers the breast cancer cell line without estrogen (MDA MB-231) showed better test results than the breast cancer cell line that is positive for estrogen (MCF-7) perhaps because some of the drug is bound to the estrogen receptors and not available to act within the cell. This is consistent with the finding that DES is effective against estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumors [57, 58].
The second measure is the 50% chemotherapeutic index, CI50. When describing the CI some researchers employ the similar terms ED or effective dose in place of the GI value for the cancer cells and LD or lethal dose in place of GI for the healthy cell line, here the WI-38 cell line. Thus, CI50 = LD50/ED50. Larger values are desired since they indicate that a larger concentration is required to inhibit the healthy cells in comparison to the cancer cells or stated in another way, larger values indicate some preference for inhibiting the cancer cells in preference to the normal cells. In general, CI50 values larger than 2 are considered significant. CI50 values are given in [see Additional file 2: Table S2].
An additional question concerns the influence of simply having the metallocene moiety present in a polymer. [see Additional file 3: Table S3] contains the CI50 values normalized against the CI50 value for dienestrol. This ratio may offer some measure of the effectiveness of having the two monomer moieties within the polymer. Values greater than one would be consistent with the presence of that moiety present in the polymer having a favorable effect.
Several features are apparent. First, cisplatin, while a most widely employed anticancer drug, has small CI50 values, all 0.02 and lower. Second, the metallocene dichlorides all have low CI50 values. Third, dienestrol has two CI50 values greater than two. Thus, it shows some significant ability to inhibit the cell growth of the transformed, 3T3, and one cancer drug in comparison to the concentration where the healthy WI-38 cell line is not affected. Third, the metallocene polymers all exhibit some CI50 values above 2. The hafnocene and zironocene-dienestrol polymers exhibit high CI50 values for all of the tested cancer and transformed cell lines. This is consistent with these particular polymers meriting further study. Further, while much of the recent anticancer effort with respect to metallocene-containing compounds has focused on titanocene-containing compounds, the zirconocene and hafnocene polymers showed somewhat better CI50 values in the current study. Thus, future studies might consider not only the titanocene-containing compounds but also the analogous zirconocene and hafnocene compounds for study. Fourth, while the dienestrol exhibited decent CI50 values, all of the corresponding polymers exhibited higher CI50 values for all of the cell lines. Thus, the ability to arrest cell growth is not only dependent on the presence of the dienestrol but also on the presence of the metallocene moiety.
With respect to the normalization of the CI50 values for each cell line against the CI50 values for dienestrol itself, no norm has been established for this kind of comparison. Thus, conclusions should be viewed in this light. All of the values for the polymers are greater than two consistent with the presence of having the combination of dienestrol and metallocene in the same polymer being positive with respect to the ability to inhibit cancer and transformed cells in comparison to the healthy WI-38 cell line.
The current drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight forward.
- Carraher C: Organotin polymers, in Macromolecules Containing Metal and Metal-Like Elements, Group IVB-ContainingPolymers. 2005, Wiley, Hobokin, 4:Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Li F, Butler C: Synthesis and structural characterization of polymers derived from the condensation of organotin dichlorides and the synthetic amino acids p-amonobenzoic acid and ampicillin. J Polym Mater. 2000, 17: 377-384.Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Lanz L: Synthesis and initial structural characterization of organotin polymers containing norfloxacin. J Polym Mater. 2003, 20: 91-100.Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Roner MR, Shahi K, Ashida Y, Barot G: Synthesis and initial cell line results of organotin polyethers containing diethylstilbestrol. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymer Materials. 2008, 18: 180-188. 10.1007/s10904-007-9184-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Barot G, Shahi K, Roner M, Carraher C: Synthesis, structural characterization, and ability to inhibit cancer growth of a series of organotin poly(ethylene glycols). Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymer Materials. 2007, 17: 595-603. 10.1007/s10904-007-9158-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Morie K: Synthesis of organotin polyesters containing ticarcillin. J Polym Mater. 2004, 21: 383-391.Google Scholar
- Barot G, Shahi K, Roner M, Carraher C: Synthesis, anomalous fiber formation, and preliminary anticancer study of the organotin polyether derived from 2-butyne-1,4-diol. J Polym Mater. 2006, 23: 423-436.Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Morie K: Organotin polyesters from 1,1'-ferrocenedicarboxylic acidO. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymer Materials. 2007, 17: 127-133. 10.1007/s10904-006-9089-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Battin A, Shahi K, Roner M: Synthesis, structural characterization, and initial evaluation as anticancer drugs of dibutyltin polyamines derived form various 4,6-diaminopyrimidines. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymer Materials. 2007, 17: 631-639. 10.1007/s10904-007-9159-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Sabir T, Roner M, Shahi K, Bleicher R, Roehr J, Bassett K: Synthesis of organotin polyamine ethers containing acyclovir and their preliminary anticancer and antiviral activity. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymer Materials. 2006, 16: 249-257. 10.1007/s10904-006-9050-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roner M, Carraher C, Roehr J, Bassett K: Antiviral and anticancer activity of organotin polymers and reactants derived from norfloxacin and ampicillin. J Polym Mater. 2006, 23: 153-159.Google Scholar
- Carraher CE, Roner MR, Barot G: Organotin-containing Polyethers as Potential Anticancer Drugs. Cancer Research Journal. 2009.Google Scholar
- Roner M, Carraher C, Dhanji S, Barot G: Antiviral and anticancer activity of cisplatin derives of tilorone. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymer Materials. 2008, 18: 374-383. 10.1007/s10904-008-9219-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roner M, Carraher C, Dhanji S, Barot G: Antiviral and anticancer activity of cisplatin derivatives of methotrexate. J Polym Mater. 2007, 24: 371-385.Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Scott W, Schroeder J: Poly(cis-dihalodiamineplatinum(II)) compounds: synthesis and biological activity. J Macromol Sci Chem. 1981, A15: 625-631. 10.1080/00222338108056754.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Siegmann-Louda D, Carraher C: Polymeric platinum-containing drugs in the treatment of cancer, in Macromolecules Containing Metal and Metal-Like Elements. Biomedical Applications. 2004, Wiley, Hobokin, 3:Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Lopez I, Giron D: Polymeric platinol derivative of methotrexate for the treatment of virally related juvenile diabetes. 1987, New York, NY: PlenumView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C: Condensation metallocene polymers. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymer Materials. 2005, 15: 121-145. 10.1007/s10904-004-2382-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sabir T, Carraher C: Synthesis and structural characterization of group IVB metallocene polymers containing acyclovir. J Polym Mater. 2005, 22: 449-458.Google Scholar
- Carraher C: Organotin polymers, in Macromolecules Containing Metal and Metal-Like Elements, Group IVA Polymer. 2005, Wiley, Hobokin, 4:Google Scholar
- Carraher CE, Roner MR, Shahi K, Ashida Y, Barot G: Synthesis, structural characterization, and anti-cancer evaluation of group IVB-metallocene polyethers containing the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol. J Polym Mater. 2007, 24 (4): 357-369.Google Scholar
- Short WF, Hobday GI: Dienestrol. US, 2,464,203: Boots. 1949Google Scholar
- Adler E: 3,4-Bis(p-hydroxphenol)-2,4-hexadiene. US Pat. 2,465,505: Hoffman-La Roche. 1949Google Scholar
- Ikegami T, Mukawa T, Nariai H, Takeuchi T: Bisphenol A-recognition polymers prepared by covalent molecular imprinting. Anal Chim Acta. 2004, 504 (1): 131-135. 10.1016/j.aca.2003.08.032.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ikegami T, Lee WS, Nariai H, Takeuchi T: Covalent molecular imprinting of bisphenol A using its diesters followed by the reductive cleavage with LiAlH4. J Chromatogr B. 2004, 804 (1): 197-201. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2003.12.031.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sanbe H, Haginaka J: Uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers for bisphenol A and beta-estradiol: retention and molecular recognition properties in hydro-organic mobile phases. J Pharmaceut Biomed. 2003, 30 (6): 1835-1844. 10.1016/S0731-7085(02)00526-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ye L, Yu YH, Mosbach K: Towards the development of molecularly imprinted artificial receptors for the screening of estrogenic chemicals. Analyst. 2001, 126 (6): 760-765. 10.1039/b009048o.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tarbin JA, Sharman M: Development of molecularly imprinted phase for the selective retention of stilbene-type estrogenic compounds. Anal Chim Acta. 2001, 433 (1): 71-79. 10.1016/S0003-2670(00)01373-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tarbin JA, Sharman M: Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer selective for artificial phenolic estrogenic compounds. Anal Commun. 1999, 36 (3): 105-107. 10.1039/a900197b.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vaya N, Karen R, Sadanand S, Gupta V: Novel dosage form comprising modified-release and immediate-release active ingredients. 2006, Office USP, vol. US 2006024365. USA, 49-Google Scholar
- Ai H, Duerk J, Flask C, Gao J, Lewin J, Shuai X, Weinberg B: Dual function polymer micelles used for drug delivery and contrast agents. 2005, Office USP, vol. US 2004-577142 20040604. USA, 46-Google Scholar
- Kannan M, Krishnan A, Sapre B, Shan C, Patil A: Controlled release pharmaceutical compositions containing polymers. 2004, Office USP, vol. US 2003-517589 20031105. USA, 75-Google Scholar
- Aktiebolaget L: High-molecular, phosphorus-containing antienzymic substances. Edited by: Britain G. 1956, vol. GB 753319. Great Britain, 47-Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Powers D, Pandya B: Synthesis and structural characterization of polyphosphate and polyphosphonate esters derived from biologically active diols. J Polym Mater. 1993, 10: 17-26.Google Scholar
- Carraher C, Bajah S: Effects of base nature, base concentration, and method of synthesis of titanium polyether. British Polymer Journal. 1975, 7: 155-159. 10.1002/pi.4980070304.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Bajah S: Tentative identification of reactive species in the interfacial and aqueous solution synthesis of titanium polymers. Polymer. 1974, 15: 9-12. 10.1016/0032-3861(74)90067-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Bajah S: Synthesis of titanium polyethers by the interfacial and aqueous solution techniques. Polymer. 1973, 14: 42-44. 10.1016/0032-3861(73)90093-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Jambaya L: Synthesis of zirconium polyethers. Die Angew Makromol Chemie. 1974, 39: 69-76. 10.1002/apmc.1974.050390106.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Jambaya L: Initial synthesis and thermal characterization of hafnium polyethers. Die Angew Makromol Chemie. 1976, 52: 111-116. 10.1002/apmc.1976.050520110.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pampillion C, Sweeney N, Strohfeldt K, Ttacke M: Synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of new dimethylamino-functionalized and heteroaryl-substituted titanocene anti-cancer drugs. Journal of Organomatallic Chemistry. 2007, 692: 2153-2159. 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2007.01.045.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oberschmidt O, Hanauske A, Pampillon C, Sweeney N, Strohfeldt K, Tacke M: Synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of new dimethylamino-functionalized and heteroaryl-substituted titanocene anti-cancer drugs. Anti-Cancer Drugs. 2007, 18: 317-321. 10.1097/CAD.0b013e3280115f86.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu Z, Lu C, Ren X, Meng Q: New metallocene-bridged cyclodextrin dimer: a stable derivative of the antitumor drug titanocene dichloride and its potent cytoxicity against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Journal of Organomatallic Chemistry. 2006, 691: 5895-5899. 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2006.09.052.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Potter G, Baird M, Chan M, Cole S: Cellular toxicities of new titanocene dichloride derivatives containing pendant cyclic alkylammonium groups. Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 2006, 9: 1114-1116. 10.1016/j.inoche.2006.07.019.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gomez-Ruiz S, Kaluderovic GN, Prashar S, Polo-Ceron D, Fajardo M, Zizak Z, Sabo TJ, Juranic ZD: Cytotoxic studies of substituted titanocene and ansa-titanocene anticancer drugs. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2008, 102 (8): 1558-1570. 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.02.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Claffey J, Hogan M, Muller-Bunz H, Pampillon C, Tacke M: Oxali-titanocene Y: A potent anticancer drug. Chemmedchem. 2008, 3 (5): 729-731. 10.1002/cmdc.200700302.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gansauer A, Winkler I, Worgull D, Lauterbach T, Franke D, Selig A, Wagner L, Prokop A: Carbonyl-substituted titanocenes: A novel class of cytostatic compounds with high antitumor and antileukemic activity. Chem-Eur J. 2008, 14 (14): 4160-4163. 10.1002/chem.200800407.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hernandez R, Lamboy J, Gao LM, Matta J, Roman FR, Melendez E: Structure-activity studies of Ti(IV) complexes: aqueous stability and cytotoxic properties in colon cancer HT-29 cells. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 2008, 13 (5): 685-692. 10.1007/s00775-008-0353-z.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Strohfeldt K, Tacke M: Bioorganometallic fulvene-derived titanocene anti-cancer drugs. Chem Soc Rev. 2008, 37 (6): 1174-1187. 10.1039/b707310k.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dowling CM, Claffey J, Cuffe S, Fichtner I, Pampillon C, Sweeney NJ, Strohfeldt K, Watson RWG, Tacke M: Antitumor activity of Titanocene Y in xenografted PC3 tumors in mice. Lett Drug Des Discov. 2008, 5 (2): 141-144. 10.2174/157018008783928463.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pampillon C, Claffey J, Hogan M, Tacke M: Novel achiral titanocene anti-cancer drugs synthesised from bis-N,N-dimethylamino fulvene and lithiated heterocyclic compounds. Biometals. 2008, 21 (2): 197-204. 10.1007/s10534-007-9108-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hogan M, Claffey J, Pampillon C, Tacke M: Synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of new morpholino-functionalised and N-heteroaryl-substituted titanocene anticancer drugs. Medicinal Chemistry. 2008, 4 (2): 91-99. 10.2174/157340608783789202.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pampillon C, Claffey J, Strohfeldt K, Tacke M: Synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of new dimethylamino-functionalised and aryl-substituted titanocene anti-cancer agents. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2008, 43 (1): 122-128. 10.1016/j.ejmech.2007.02.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Twaites B, Alarcon CD, Alexander C: Synthetic polymers as drugs and therapeutics. J Mater Chem. 2005, 15 (4): 441-455. 10.1039/b410799n.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chourasia MK, Jain SK: Design and development of multiparticulate system for targeted drug delivery to colon. Drug Delivery. 2004, 11 (3): 201-207. 10.1080/10717540490445955.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Sabir T, Carraher CL: Fundamentals of Fragmentation Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. 2008, New York, NY: SpringerView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carraher C, Sabir T, Carraher CL: Fragmentation Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Basics. J Polym Mater. 2006, 23: 143-151.Google Scholar
- Swain S, Lippman M: Cancer Chemotherapy. 2006, Philadelphia, PA.: LiopincottGoogle Scholar
- Vogelzang N: Chemotherapy Source Book. 1992, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins, 1008:Google Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/9/358/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.