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  1. Distant spread from breast cancer is commonly found in bones, lungs, liver and central nervous system. Metastatic involvement of peritoneum and retroperitoneum is unusual and unexpected.

    Authors: G Franceschini, A Manno, A Mulè, A Verbo, G Rizzo, D Sermoneta, L Petito, P D'alba, C Maggiore, D Terribile, R Masetti and C Coco
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:193
  2. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenic differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and ornithine ...

    Authors: Michele Linsalata, Romina Giannini, Maria Notarnicola and Aldo Cavallini
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:191
  3. Extensive disease of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) determines the overall outcome and limits curative resection. Despite chemotherapy, which has been introduced to improve the outcome of biliary tract malignancies, ...

    Authors: Martin F Sprinzl, Carl C Schimanski, Markus Moehler, Simin Schadmand-Fischer, Peter R Galle and Stephan Kanzler
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:190
  4. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with ovarian cancer and may impact the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Our aims were to examine the extent of disease at the time of the diagnosis of ovarian cancer and ...

    Authors: Mette S Tetsche, Mette Nørgaard, Lars Pedersen, Timothy L Lash and Henrik T Sørensen
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:189
  5. Interleukins and cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of many solid cancers. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in cytokine genes are thought to influence the expression ...

    Authors: SP Balasubramanian, IAF Azmy, SE Higham, AG Wilson, SS Cross, A Cox, NJ Brown and MW Reed
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:188
  6. Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was...

    Authors: Shinichi Tsutsui, Kazuhiro Yasuda, Kosuke Suzuki, Hideya Takeuchi, Takashi Nishizaki, Hidefumi Higashi and Shoichi Era
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:187
  7. Carcinosarcoma of the colon is a rare histopathological entity with uncertain histogenesis, that shows both epithelial and mesenchymal malignant differentiation. Carcinosarcoma rarely affects the gastrointesti...

    Authors: Andrea Ambrosini-Spaltro, Valentina Vaira, Paola Braidotti, Marco PL Rovati, Stefano Ferrero and Silvano Bosari
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:185
  8. In most patients with ovarian cancer, diagnosis occurs after the tumour has disseminated beyond the ovaries. In these cases, post-surgical taxane/platinum combination chemotherapy is the "gold standard". Howev...

    Authors: Jürgen Sonnemann, Jennifer Gänge, Sabine Pilz, Christine Stötzer, Ralf Ohlinger, Antje Belau, Gerd Lorenz and James F Beck
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:183
  9. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), the key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is involved in critical steps of tumor onset and progression, and is a strong predictor of chemotherapy resist...

    Authors: Gabriella Ferrandina, Franco O Ranelletti, Enrica Martinelli, Amelia Paglia, Gian Franco Zannoni and Giovanni Scambia
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:182
  10. Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins. The inducible isoform of COX (COX-2) is highly expressed in aggressive metastatic breast cancers and may play a ...

    Authors: Teri L Larkins, Marchele Nowell, Shailesh Singh and Gary L Sanford
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:181
  11. A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) represents a unilateral chromosomal loss that reduces the dose of highly repetitive Alu, L1, and LTR retroelements. The aim of this study was to determine if the LOH events can affe...

    Authors: Young-Ho Kim, Seung-Jin Hong, Yu-Chae Jung, Sung-Ja Kim, Eun-Joo Seo, Sang-Wook Choi and Mun-Gan Rhyu
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:180
  12. The primary aim of treatment of a patient who has developed metastatic disease is palliation. The objectives of the current study are to describe and quantify the clinical management of women with metastatic b...

    Authors: Klaartje Manders, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse, Geert-Jan Creemers, Gerard Vreugdenhil, Maurice JC van der Sangen, Grard AP Nieuwenhuijzen, Rudi MH Roumen and Adri C Voogd
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:179
  13. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in most parts of the world but is common in southern China. A recent report from the Hong Kong Cancer Registry, a high-risk area for NPC in southern China, s...

    Authors: Wei-Hua Jia, Qi-Hong Huang, Jian Liao, Weimin Ye, YY Shugart, Qing Liu, Li-Zhen Chen, Yan-Hua Li, Xiao Lin, Fa-Lin Wen, Hans-Olov Adami, Yi Zeng and Yi-Xin Zeng
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:178
  14. Neuroblastoma is a frequently lethal pediatric cancer in which MYCN genomic amplification is highly correlated with aggressive disease. Deregulated MYC genes require co-operative lesions to foster tumourigenesis ...

    Authors: Vincent Dam, Brian T Morgan, Pavel Mazanek and Michael D Hogarty
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:177
  15. It has recently been shown that overexpression of the serine protease, matriptase, in transgenic mice causes a dramatically increased frequency of carcinoma formation. Overexpression of HAI-1 and matriptase to...

    Authors: Lotte K Vogel, Mona Sæbø, Camilla F Skjelbred, Kathrine Abell, Esben DK Pedersen, Ulla Vogel and Elin H Kure
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:176
  16. The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorph...

    Authors: Camilla F Skjelbred, Mona Sæbø, Bjørn A Nexø, Håkan Wallin, Inger-Lise Hansteen, Ulla Vogel and Elin H Kure
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:175
  17. The effect of current therapies in improving the survival of lung cancer patients remains far from satisfactory. It is consequently desirable to find more appropriate therapeutic opportunities based on informe...

    Authors: Akihiko Gemma, Cai Li, Yuka Sugiyama, Kuniko Matsuda, Yoko Seike, Seiji Kosaihira, Yuji Minegishi, Rintaro Noro, Michiya Nara, Masahiro Seike, Akinobu Yoshimura, Aki Shionoya, Akiko Kawakami, Naoki Ogawa, Haruka Uesaka and Shoji Kudoh
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:174
  18. A cohort study was conducted to examine the role of genetic polymorphisms in three estrogen metabolizing enzymes (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and the two estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2) in the progression of benign bre...

    Authors: Lisa Gallicchio, Sonja I Berndt, Meghan A McSorley, Craig J Newschaffer, Lucy W Thuita, Pedram Argani, Sandra C Hoffman and Kathy J Helzlsouer
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:173
  19. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is a cytotoxic anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody that has given promising preliminary results in adult myeloid CD33+ AML. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of 12 children tr...

    Authors: Benoit Brethon, Anne Auvrignon, Claire Galambrun, Karima Yakouben, Thierry Leblanc, Yves Bertrand, Guy Leverger and André Baruchel
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:172
  20. Abnormal levels of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) have been observed in many human neoplasms including breast cancer and it has been demonstrated that they have both prognostic and therapeutic implications. In thi...

    Authors: Mariarita Romanucci, Alessia Marinelli, Giuseppe Sarli and Leonardo Della Salda
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:171
  21. Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT), alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the...

    Authors: Christina A Clarke, David M Purdie and Sally L Glaser
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:170
  22. The occurrence of skeletal muscle metastases is a very rare event. Only two cases of late skeletal muscle recurrence from cervical cancer have been documented until now.

    Authors: Gabriella Ferrandina, Vanda Salutari, Antonia Testa, Gian Franco Zannoni, Marco Petrillo and Giovanni Scambia
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:169
  23. The presence of cancer makes it difficult to predict the progress of pregnancy and can be deleterious to the maternal-foetal relationship. Apoptosis may affect a range of placental functions and result in the ...

    Authors: Mércia Tancredo Toledo, Gislaine Ventrucci and Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes Marcondes
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:168
  24. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers in southern China. In addition to environmental factors such as Epstein-Barr virus infection and diet, genetic susceptibility has been reported ...

    Authors: Yun Cao, Xiao-Ping Miao, Ma-Yan Huang, Ling Deng, Li-Fu Hu, Ingemar Ernberg, Yi-Xin Zeng, Dong-Xin Lin and Jian-Yong Shao
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:167
  25. Activation of caspase-9 in response to treatment with cytotoxic drugs is inhibited in NSCLC cells, which may contribute to the clinical resistance to chemotherapy shown in this type of tumor. The aim of the pr...

    Authors: Agnieszka Checinska, Giuseppe Giaccone, Bas SJ Hoogeland, Carlos G Ferreira, Jose A Rodriguez and Frank AE Kruyt
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:166
  26. To evaluate the expression and test the clinical significance of the epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to check the suitability of esophageal SCC patien...

    Authors: Nikolas H Stoecklein, Annika Siegmund, Peter Scheunemann, Andreas M Luebke, Andreas Erbersdobler, Pablo E Verde, Claus F Eisenberger, Matthias Peiper, Alexander Rehders, Jan Schulte am Esch, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel and Stefan B Hosch
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:165
  27. The association of nipple discharge with breast carcinoma has resulted in numerous women undergoing exploratory surgery to exclude malignancy. The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-operative facto...

    Authors: Mary F Dillon, Shah R Mohd Nazri, Shaaira Nasir, Enda W McDermott, Denis Evoy, Thomas B Crotty, Niall O'Higgins and Arnold DK Hill
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:164
  28. Although the human β-defensins hBDs today seem to have diverse functional activities in innate antimicrobial immunity, a few reports also indicated an altered expression of these antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) ...

    Authors: T Gambichler, M Skrygan, J Huyn, FG Bechara, M Sand, P Altmeyer and A Kreuter
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:163
  29. In selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer prognosis can be improved by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) after cytoreductive surgery. The aim of this study was ...

    Authors: Joerg OW Pelz, J Doerfer, A Dimmler, W Hohenberger and T Meyer
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:162
  30. In multiple myeloma (MM), increased neoangiogenesis contributes to tumor growth and disease progression. Increased levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to neoangiogenesis in MM, and, import...

    Authors: Marc Braunstein, Tayfun Özçelik, Sevgi Bağişlar, Varsha Vakil, Eric LP Smith, Kezhi Dai, Cemaliye B Akyerli and Olcay A Batuman
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:161
  31. The risk of metastasis and the survival in patients with primary extremity soft tissue sarcomas is worse when tumour size is large and the grade of malignancy is high. Such tumours may receive chemotherapy and...

    Authors: Benedikt Leidinger, Thomas Heyse, Andreas Schuck, Horst Buerger, Philipp Mommsen, Thomas Bruening, Susanne Fuchs and Georg Gosheger
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:160
  32. Previous studies on bladder cancer have shown nodal involvement to be an independent indicator of prognosis and survival. This study aimed at developing an objective method for detection of nodal metastasis fr...

    Authors: Anirban P Mitra, Arpit A Almal, Ben George, David W Fry, Peter F Lenehan, Vincenzo Pagliarulo, Richard J Cote, Ram H Datar and William P Worzel
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:159
  33. C/EBPα is a transcription factor essential for terminal differentiation of several cell types. It has not known if C/EBPα protein is expressed and functions in the prostate gland.

    Authors: Hong Yin, Hanna S Radomska, Daniel G Tenen and Jonathan Glass
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:158
  34. It is widely accepted that vulvar carcinoma with a depth of invasion of less than one millimeter is sufficiently treated by vulvectomy or wide local excision without inguinal lymphadenectomy.

    Authors: Jutta Sidor, Raihana Diallo-Danebrock, Elke Eltze and Ralph J Lellé
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:157
  35. Breast cancer in men is an infrequent occurrence, accounting for ~1% of all breast tumors with an incidence of about 1:100,000. The relative rarity of male breast cancer (MBC) limits our understanding of the e...

    Authors: GianMaria Miolo, Lara Della Puppa, Manuela Santarosa, Clelia De Giacomi, Andrea Veronesi, Ettore Bidoli, Maria Grazia Tibiletti, Alessandra Viel and Riccardo Dolcetti
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:156
  36. GSAO (4-[N-[S-glutathionylacetyl]amino] phenylarsenoxide) is a hydrophilic derivative of the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide (PAO). It inhibits angiogenesis and tumour growth in mouse...

    Authors: Verity A Cadd, Philip J Hogg, Adrian L Harris and Stephan M Feller
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:155
  37. TSPY is a repeated gene mapped to the critical region harboring the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY), the only oncogenic locus on this male-specific chromosome. Elevated levels of TSPY have been ...

    Authors: Shane W Oram, Xing Xing Liu, Tin-Lap Lee, Wai-Yee Chan and Yun-Fai Chris Lau
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:154
  38. There is a lack of clinical data on the validity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of the adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy reg...

    Authors: Arturas Inciura, Andrius Simavicius, Elona Juozaityte, Juozas Kurtinaitis, Ruta Nadisauskiene, Eimantas Svedas and Skirmantas Kajenas
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:153
  39. The role of exogenous hormone exposures in the development of meningioma is unclear, but these exposures have been proposed as one hypothesis to explain the over-abundance of such tumors in women.

    Authors: Brian Custer, WT Longstreth Jr, Leslie E Phillips, Thomas D Koepsell and Gerald Van Belle
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:152
  40. Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common cause of early casualty from malignant disease in western countries. The heterogeneous nature of these cells has been identified by histochemical and microarray bi...

    Authors: Sandra YY Fok, Jeffrey S Rubin, Fiona Pixley, John Condeelis, Filip Braet and Lilian L Soon
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:151

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Cancer 2007 7:32

  41. Studies indicate that thymidylate synthase (TS) expression, p53 and mismatch repair status have potential to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) outcome. There is, however, little data on the inter-relationship ...

    Authors: Sanjay Popat, Richard Wort and Richard S Houlston
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:150
  42. Upregulation of endogenous angiostatin levels may constitute a novel anti-angiogenic, and therefore anti-tumor therapy. In vitro, angiostatin generation is a two-step process, starting with the conversion of plas...

    Authors: Renate RJ de Groot-Besseling, Theo JM Ruers, Iris L Lamers-Elemans, Cathy N Maass, Robert MW de Waal and Johan R Westphal
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:149
  43. Increasing evidence from epidemiologic studies suggest that oxidative stress may play a role in adult glioma. In addition to dietary antioxidants, antioxidant and weak estrogenic properties of dietary phytoest...

    Authors: Nicole Tedeschi-Blok, Marion Lee, Jennette D Sison, Rei Miike and Margaret Wrensch
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:148
  44. Abnormal hemostasis in cancer patients has previously been described, however the correlation between the plasma fibrinogen level and cancer metastasis and prognosis has not been reported in a large-scale clin...

    Authors: Hiroharu Yamashita, Joji Kitayama, Nobuko Kanno, Yutaka Yatomi and Hirokazu Nagawa
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:147
  45. Very few reports have investigated the role of cell cycle regulators as biomarkers in Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BSCC) of the larynx, a definite morphologic, uncommon, very aggressive variant of squamou...

    Authors: Grazia Salerno, Dolores Di Vizio, Stefania Staibano, Giampiero Mottola, Giuseppe Quaremba, Massimo Mascolo, Vieri Galli, Gaetano De Rosa and Luigi Insabato
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:146
  46. Ephrin receptor B2 (EPHB2) has recently been proposed as a novel tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). Inactivation of the gene has been shown to correlate with progression of colorectal tumorigenesi...

    Authors: Antti Kokko, Päivi Laiho, Rainer Lehtonen, Sanna Korja, Luis G Carvajal-Carmona, Heikki Järvinen, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Charis Eng, Johanna Schleutker, Ian PM Tomlinson, Pia Vahteristo and Lauri A Aaltonen
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:145
  47. Increased expression of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands has been implicated in tumor progression in a number of malignancies. This report describes aberrant expression of these genes in ...

    Authors: Nirmitha I Herath, Mark D Spanevello, Sabe Sabesan, Tanya Newton, Margaret Cummings, Shannon Duffy, Douglas Lincoln, Glen Boyle, Peter G Parsons and Andrew W Boyd
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:144
  48. Gemcitabine (dFdC) is an active antitumour agent with radiosensitising properties, shown both in preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, the relation between deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) activity...

    Authors: Bea Pauwels, Annelies EC Korst, Greet GO Pattyn, Hilde AJ Lambrechts, Juliette AE Kamphuis, Christel MJ De Pooter, Godefridus J Peters, Filip Lardon and Jan B Vermorken
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:142

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