Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67(1):7–30.
Akaza H, Homma Y, Usami M, Hirao Y, Tsushima T, Okada K, Yokoyama M, Ohashi Y, Aso Y, Prostate Cancer Study G. Efficacy of primary hormone therapy for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer: results of a 10-year follow-up. BJU Int. 2006;98(3):573–9.
Akaza H, Hinotsu S, Usami M, Arai Y, Kanetake H, Naito S, Hirao Y, Study Group for the Combined Androgen Blockade Therapy of Prostate C. Combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide for advanced prostate cancer: long-term follow-up of a phase 3, double-blind, randomized study for survival. Cancer. 2009;115(15):3437–45.
Ueno S, Namiki M, Fukagai T, Ehara H, Usami M, Akaza H. Efficacy of primary hormonal therapy for patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer: a retrospective multicenter study. Int J Urol. 2006;13(12):1494–500.
Fujikawa K, Matsui Y, Fukuzawa S, Takeuchi H. Prostate-specific antigen levels and clinical response to flutamide as the second hormone therapy for hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2000;37(2):218–22.
Miyake H, Hara I, Eto H. Clinical outcome of maximum androgen blockade using flutamide as second-line hormonal therapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2005;96(6):791–5.
Okihara K, Ukimura O, Kanemitsu N, Mizutani Y, Kawauchi A, Miki T. Clinical efficacy of alternative antiandrogen therapy in Japanese men with relapsed prostate cancer after first-line hormonal therapy. Int J Urol. 2007;14(2):128–32.
Nishimura K, Arichi N, Tokugawa S, Yoshioka I, Kishikawa H, Ichikawa Y. Effects of flutamide as a second-line agent for maximum androgen blockade of hormone refractory prostate cancer. Int J Urol. 2007;14(3):264–7.
Suzuki H, Okihara K, Miyake H, Fujisawa M, Miyoshi S, Matsumoto T, Fujii M, Takihana Y, Usui T, Matsuda T, et al. Alternative nonsteroidal antiandrogen therapy for advanced prostate cancer that relapsed after initial maximum androgen blockade. J Urol. 2008;180(3):921–7.
Okegawa T, Nutahara K, Higashihara E. Alternative antiandrogen therapy in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a single-center experience. Int J Urol. 2010;17(11):950–5.
Yasui M, Uemura K, Yoneyama S, Kawahara T, Hattori Y, Teranishi JI, Inoue M, Ohta JI, Yokomizo Y, Yao M, et al. Predictors of poor response to secondary alternative antiandrogen therapy with flutamide in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2016;46(11):1042–6.
Lowrance WT, Roth BJ, Kirkby E, Murad MH, Cookson MS. Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: AUA guideline amendment 2015. J Urol. 2016;195(5):1444–52.
Tran C, Ouk S, Clegg NJ, Chen Y, Watson PA, Arora V, Wongvipat J, Smith-Jones PM, Yoo D, Kwon A, et al. Development of a second-generation antiandrogen for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Science (New York, NY). 2009;324(5928):787–90.
Jung ME, Ouk S, Yoo D, Sawyers CL, Chen C, Tran C, Wongvipat J. Structure-activity relationship for thiohydantoin androgen receptor antagonists for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). J Med Chem. 2010;53(7):2779–96.
Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F, Taplin ME, Sternberg CN, Miller K, de Wit R, Mulders P, Chi KN, Shore ND, et al. Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(13):1187–97.
Beer TM, Armstrong AJ, Rathkopf DE, Loriot Y, Sternberg CN, Higano CS, Iversen P, Bhattacharya S, Carles J, Chowdhury S, et al. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(5):424–33.
Scher HI, Halabi S, Tannock I, Morris M, Sternberg CN, Carducci MA, Eisenberger MA, Higano C, Bubley GJ, Dreicer R, et al. Design and end points of clinical trials for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone: recommendations of the Prostate Cancer clinical trials working group. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(7):1148–59.
Kimura G, Yonese J, Fukagai T, Kamba T, Nishimura K, Nozawa M, Mansbach H, Theeuwes A, Beer TM, Tombal B, et al. Enzalutamide in Japanese patients with chemotherapy-naive, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a post-hoc analysis of the placebo-controlled PREVAIL trial. Int J Urol. 2016;23(5):395–403.
Namiki M, Akaza H, Lee SE, Song JM, Umbas R, Zhou L, Lee BC, Cheng C, Chung MK, Fukagai T, et al. Prostate Cancer working group report. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2010;40(Suppl 1):i70–5.
Shore ND, Chowdhury S, Villers A, Klotz L, Siemens DR, Phung v OS, Hasabou N, Wang F, Bhattacharya S, et al. Efficacy and safety of enzalutamide versus bicalutamide for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (TERRAIN): a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(2):153–63.
Penson DF, Armstrong AJ, Concepcion R, Agarwal N, Olsson C, Karsh L, Dunshee C, Wang F, Wu K, Krivoshik A, et al. Enzalutamide versus Bicalutamide in castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: the STRIVE trial. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(18):2098–106.
Evans CP, Higano CS, Keane T, Andriole G, Saad F, Iversen P, Miller K, Kim CS, Kimura G, Armstrong AJ, et al. The PREVAIL Study: primary outcomes by site and extent of baseline disease for enzalutamide-treated men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2016;70(4):675–83.