Park S, Oh C-M, Cho H, Lee JY, Jung K-W, Jun JK, et al. Association between screening and the thyroid cancer “epidemic” in South Korea: evidence from a nationwide study. BMJ. 2016;355:i5745.
Lim H, Devesa SS, Sosa JA, Check D, Kitahara CM. Trends in thyroid Cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1974-2013. JAMA. 2017;317:1338.
Dal Maso L, Lise M, Zambon P, Falcini F, Crocetti E, Serraino D, et al. Incidence of thyroid cancer in Italy, 1991–2005: time trends and age–period–cohort effects. Ann Oncol. 2010;22:957–63.
Carrasquilla-Sotomayor M, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, de la Rosa FG, Zakzuk JA, Figueroa RM, Machado PM, et al. Cost and effectiveness of the use of Sorafenib in differentiated thyroid Cancer. Value Health. 2017;20:A876.
La Vecchia C, Malvezzi M, Bosetti C, Garavello W, Bertuccio P, Levi F, et al. Thyroid cancer mortality and incidence: a global overview. Int J Cancer. 2015;136:2187–95.
Sapunar J, Muñoz S, Roa JC. Epidemiología del cáncer de tiroides en Chile: Resultados del estudio INCATIR. Rev Médica Chile. 2014;142:1099–105.
Veiga LHS, Neta G, Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, Ron E, Devesa SS. Thyroid Cancer incidence patterns in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and the U.S. SEER program, 1997–2008. Thyroid. 2013;23:748–57.
Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet. 2013;380:2197–223.
Devleesschauwer B, Mc Donald S, Haagsma J, Praet N, Havelaar A, Speybroeck N. The DALY Calculator–A GUI for stochastic DALY calculation in R; 2014.
Salomon JA, Haagsma JA, Davis A, de Noordhout CM, Polinder S, Havelaar AH, et al. Disability weights for the global burden of disease 2013 study. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3:e712–23.
SOLCA. Registro Nacional de Tumores. Epidemiología del Cancer en Quito 2006–2010. 2014.
INEC. VII Censo de Población y VI de Vivienda 2010. 2010.
Sierra MS, Soerjomataram I, Forman D. Thyroid cancer burden in central and South America. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;44:S150–7.
Cordioli MICV, Canalli MHBS, Coral MHC. Increase incidence of thyroid cancer in Florianopolis, Brazil: comparative study of diagnosed cases in 2000 and 2005. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009;53:453–60.
Barr RD, Ferrari A, Ries L, Whelan J, Bleyer WA. Cancer in adolescents and young adults. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170:495.
Brown RL, de Souza JA, Cohen EE. Thyroid cancer: burden of illness and management of disease. J Cancer. 2011;2:193.
Brito JP, Yarur AJ, Prokop LJ, McIver B, Murad MH, Montori VM. Prevalence of thyroid Cancer in multinodular goiter versus single nodule: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thyroid. 2013;23:449–55.
Brito JP, Davies L. Is there really an increased incidence of thyroid cancer? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014;21:405–8.
Midorikawa S, Ohtsuru A, Murakami M, Takahashi H, Suzuki S, Matsuzuka T, et al. Comparative analysis of the growth pattern of thyroid Cancer in young patients screened by ultrasonography in Japan after a nuclear accident. JAMA Otolaryngol Neck Surg. 2017.
Carlberg M, Hedendahl L, Ahonen M, Koppel T, Hardell L. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:426.
Espinosa V, de la Torre D, Acuña C, Cadena C. Los recursos humanos en salud según el nuevo modelo de atención en Ecuador. 2017. http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/handle/123456789/34057. Accessed 13 June 2017.
Ortiz-Prado E, Ponce-Zea J, Espin E, Ramirez D, Stewart-Ibarra AM, Cornejo León F. Analysis of health and drug access associated with the purchasing power of the Ecuadorian population. Rev Panam Salud Pública Pan Am J Public Health. 2015.
Holm L-E, Hall P, Wiklund K, Lundell G, Berg G, Bjelkengren G, et al. Cancer risk after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83:1072–7.
Metso S, Auvinen A, Huhtala H, Salmi J, Oksala H, Jaatinen P. Increased cancer incidence after radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism. Cancer Interdiscip Int J Am Cancer Soc. 2007;109:1972–9.
Zevallos JP, Hartman CM, Kramer JR, Sturgis EM, Chiao EY. Increased thyroid cancer incidence corresponds to increased use of thyroid ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration: a study of the veterans affairs health care system. Cancer. 2015;121:741–6.
Ahn HS, Welch HG. South Korea’s thyroid-cancer “epidemic”—turning the tide. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:2389–90.
Vaccarella S, Franceschi S, Bray F, Wild CP, Plummer M, Dal Maso L. Worldwide thyroid-cancer epidemic? The increasing impact of overdiagnosis. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:614–7.
Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, Kaplan EL, Chiu BC-H, Angelos P, Grogan RH. The acceleration in papillary thyroid Cancer incidence rates is similar among racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:2746–53.
Johnston LE, Tran Cao HS, Chang DC, Bouvet M. Sociodemographic predictors of survival in differentiated thyroid Cancer: results from the SEER database. ISRN Endocrinol. 2012;2012:384707.
Guay B, Johnson-Obaseki S, McDonald JT, Connell C, Corsten M. Incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer by socioeconomic status and urban residence: Canada 1991-2006. Thyroid Off J Am Thyroid Assoc. 2014;24:552–5.
Li N, Du XL, Reitzel LR, Xu L, Sturgis EM. Impact of enhanced detection on the increase in thyroid Cancer incidence in the United States: review of incidence trends by socioeconomic status within the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results registry, 1980–2008. Thyroid. 2013;23:103–10.
Park SH, Lee B, Lee S, Choi E, Choi EB, Yoo J, et al. A qualitative study of women’s views on overdiagnosis and screening for thyroid cancer in Korea. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:1–8.
Reitzel LR, Nguyen N, Li N, Xu L, Regan SD, Sturgis EM. Trends in thyroid cancer incidence in Texas from 1995 to 2008 by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Thyroid Off J Am Thyroid Assoc. 2014;24:556–67.
Karkoobi Y, Moradi G, Sharifi P, Ghafoori S. Assessment of thyroid cancer risk factors in Kurdistan province. Sci J Kurd Univ Med Sci. 2018;23:10–8.
Bonafede M, Marinaccio A, Asta F, Schifano P, Michelozzi P, Vecchi S. The association between extreme weather conditions and work-related injuries and diseases. A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2016;52:357–67.
Sharma A, Verma HK, Joshi S, Panwar MS, Mandal CC. A link between cold environment and cancer. Tumor Biol. 2015;36:5953–64.
Fierro-Benítez R, Penafiel W, De Groot LJ, Ramirez I. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in the Andean region. N Engl J Med. 1969;280:296–302.
Pretell EA, Moncloa F, Salinas R, Guerra-García R, Kawano A, Gutiérrez L, et al. Endemic goiter in rural Peru: effect of iodized oil on prevalence and size of goiter and on thyroid iodine metabolism in known endemic goitrous populations. Endem Goiter Wash DC PAHO. 1969:419–37.
Knobel M, Medeiros-Neto G. Relevance of iodine intake as a reputed predisposing factor for thyroid cancer. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007;51:701–12.
Guan H, Ji M, Bao R, Yu H, Wang Y, Hou P, et al. Association of high iodine intake with the T1799A BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1612–7.
Zimmermann MB, Galetti V. Iodine intake as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. Thyroid Res. 2015;8:8.
Axelrad AA, Leblond CP. Induction of thyroid tumors in rats by a low iodine diet. Cancer. 1955;8:339–67.
Isler H, Leblond CP, Axelrad AA. Influence of age and of iodine intake on the production of thyroid tumors in the rat. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1958;21:1065–81.
Teng W, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Li Y, Teng D, et al. Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in China. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2783–93.
Belfiore A, La Rosa GL, La Porta GA, Giuffrida D, Milazzo G, Lupo L, et al. Cancer risk in patients with cold thyroid nodules: relevance of iodine intake, sex, age, and multinodularity. Am J Med. 1992;93:363–9.
Harach HR, Escalante DA, Oňativia A, Outes JL, Day ES, Williams ED. Thyroid carcinoma and thyroiditis in an endemic goitre region before and after iodine prophylaxis. Acta Endocrinol. 1985;108:55–60.