SI FJ, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013.
Arnold M, Sierra MS, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, Bray F. Global patterns and trends in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Gut. 2017;66(4):683–91.
Colorectal Cancer Statistics WCRF International [http://www.wcrf.org/int/cancer-facts-figures/data-specific-cancers/colorectal-cancer-statistics].
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61(2):69–90.
Safari A, Shariff ZM, Kandiah M, Rashidkhani B, Fereidooni F. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case–control study. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):222.
Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(2):87–108.
Huxley RR, Ansary-Moghaddam A, Clifton P, Czernichow S, Parr CL, Woodward M. The impact of dietary and lifestyle risk factors on risk of colorectal cancer: a quantitative overview of the epidemiological evidence. Int J Cancer. 2009;125(1):171–80.
Stewart BW, Kleihues P. World cancer report, vol. 57. Lyon: IARC press; 2003.
Azizi H, Asadollahi K, Esmaeili ED, Mirzapoor M. Iranian dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer. Health promotion perspectives. 2015;5(1):72.
Parent M-É, Rousseau M-C, El-Zein M, Latreille B, Désy M, Siemiatycki J. Occupational and recreational physical activity during adult life and the risk of cancer among men. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011;35(2):151–9.
Le Marchand L, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Lyu LC. Associations of sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes with the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1997;57(21):4787–94.
Nunez C, Bauman A, Egger S, Sitas F, Nair-Shalliker V. Obesity, physical activity and cancer risks: results from the Cancer, lifestyle and evaluation of risk study (CLEAR). Cancer Epidemiol. 2017;47:56–63.
GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.1, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide [http://globocan.iarc.fr].
MOH. STEPS Survey of Risk Factors for Chronic Non Communicable Diseases. Ministry of Health, State of Kuwait; 2015. [http://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/Kuwait_2014_STEPS_Report.pdf].
Steck SE, Guinter M, Zheng J, Thomson CA. Index-based dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review. Adv. Nutr. 2015;6(6):763–73.
Akhtar S, Alroughani R, Ahmed SF, Al-Hashel JY. Retrospective cohort study of gender differential in risk of multiple sclerosis in Kuwait. Neuroepidemiology. 2016;46(3):203–8.
Ziyab AH, Akhtar S. Incidence and trend of road traffic injuries and related deaths in Kuwait: 2000-2009. Injury. 2012;43(12):2018–22.
Global Physical Activity Surveillance [http://www.who.int/chp/steps/GPAQ/en/].
Bosetti C, Rodriguez T, Chatenoud L, Bertuccio P, Levi F, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico, 1981-2007. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20(5):355–63.
burden. BFTihdatgc. Transitions in Hum Dev and the global cancer burden. In: Steward BW, Wild CP, editors. World Cancer Report 2014. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2014. p. 54–68.
Center MM, Jemal A, Smith RA, Ward E. Worldwide variations in colorectal cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59(6):366–78.
Larsson SC, Wolk A. Obesity and colon and rectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):556–65.
Kahn BB, Flier JS. Obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(4):473–81.
Jenab M, Riboli E, Cleveland RJ, Norat T, Rinaldi S, Nieters A, Biessy C, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, et al. Serum C-peptide, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and risk of colon and rectal cancers in the European prospective investigation into Cancer and nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(2):368–76.
Ma J, Giovannucci E, Pollak M, Leavitt A, Tao Y, Gaziano JM, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of plasma C-peptide and colorectal cancer risk in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(7):546–53.
Stattin P, Lukanova A, Biessy C, Soderberg S, Palmqvist R, Kaaks R, Olsson T, Jellum E. Obesity and colon cancer: does leptin provide a link? Int J Cancer. 2004;109(1):149–52.
Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(22):1679–87.
Navarro A, Diaz MP, Munoz SE, Lantieri MJ, Eynard AR. Characterization of meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in Cordoba, Argentina. Nutrition. 2003;19(1):7–10.
Nashar RM, Almurshed KS. Colorectal cancer: a case control study of dietary factors, king faisal specialist hospital and researh center, Riyadh, saudi arabia. J Family Community Med. 2008;15(2):57–64.
Arafa MA, Waly MI, Jriesat S, Al Khafajei A, Sallam S. Dietary and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer in Jordan: a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(8):1931–6.
Mahfouz EM, Sadek RR, Abdel-Latief WM, Mosallem FA, Hassan EE. The role of dietary and lifestyle factors in the development of colorectal cancer: case control study in Minia, Egypt. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2014;22(4):215–22.
Chan DS, Lau R, Aune D, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, Norat T. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e20456.
Norat T, Lukanova A, Ferrari P, Riboli E. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer. 2002;98(2):241–56.
Norat T, Lukanova A, Ferrari P, Riboli E. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an estimate of attributable and preventable fractions. IARC Sci Publ. 2002;156:223–5.
Song M, Garrett WS, Chan AT: Nutrients, foods, and colorectal Cancer prevention. Gastroenterology 2015, 148(6):1244–1260.e1216.
Demeyer D, Mertens B, De Smet S, Ulens M. Mechanisms linking colorectal Cancer to the consumption of (processed) red meat: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016;56(16):2747–66.
Domingo JL, Nadal M. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red meat and processed meat: a review of scientific news since the IARC decision. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;105(Supplement C):256–61.
Vieira AR, Abar L, Chan DSM, Vingeliene S, Polemiti E, Stevens C, Greenwood D, Norat T. Foods and beverages and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, an update of the evidence of the WCRF-AICR continuous update project. Ann Oncol. 2017;28(8):1788–802.
Gonzalez CA, Riboli E. Diet and cancer prevention: contributions from the European prospective investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(14):2555–62.
Gallaher DD, Trudo SP. Chapter 36. Nutrition and Colon Cancer. In: Coulston AM, Boushey CJ, Ferruzzi MG, Delahanty LM, editors. Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. Fourth ed. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2017. p. 787–807.
Guerin A, Mody R, Fok B, Lasch KL, Zhou Z, Wu EQ, Zhou W, Talley NJ. Risk of developing colorectal cancer and benign colorectal neoplasm in patients with chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40(1):83–92.
Promthet SS, Pientong C, Ekalaksananan T, Wiangnon S, Poomphakwaen K, Songserm N, Chopjitt P, Moore MA, Tokudome S. Risk factors for colon cancer in northeastern Thailand: interaction of MTHFR codon 677 and 1298 genotypes with environmental factors. J Epidemiol. 2010;20(4):329–38.
Tayyem RF, Shehadeh IN, Abumweis SS, Bawadi HA, Hammad SS, Bani-Hani KE, Al-Jaberi TM, Alnusair MM. Physical inactivity, water intake and constipation as risk factors for colorectal cancer among adults in Jordan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(9):5207–12.
Vobecky J, Caro J, Devroede G. A case-control study of risk factors for large bowel carcinoma. Cancer. 1983;51(10):1958–63.
Alosaimi M, Ali A, Razzak HA. Epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome; a systematic review of literature. Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries. 2016;10(1).
Liu Y, Tang W, Wang J, Xie L, Li T, He Y, Deng Y, Peng Q, Li S, Qin X. Association between statin use and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 42 studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2014;25(2):237–49.
Lytras T, Nikolopoulos G, Bonovas S. Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 studies. World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG. 2014;20(7):1858–70.
Jacobs D, Blackburn H, Higgins M, Reed D, Iso H, McMillan G, Neaton J, Nelson J, Potter J, Rifkind B, et al. Report of the conference on low blood cholesterol: mortality associations. Circulation. 1992;86(3):1046–60.
Marks AR, Pietrofesa RA, Jensen CD, Zebrowski A, Corley DA, Doubeni CA. Metformin use and risk of colorectal adenoma after polypectomy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. 2015.
Sehdev A, YCT S, Vekhter B, Bissonnette M, Olopade OI, Polite B. metformin for primary colorectal Cancer prevention in diabetic patients: a case-control study in a US population. Cancer. 2015;121(7):1071–8.
He X-k, T-t S, Si J-m, L-m S. Metformin is associated with slightly reduced risk of colorectal Cancer and moderate survival benefits in diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Medicine. 2016;95(7):e2749.
Bodmer M, Becker C, Meier C, Jick SS, Meier CR. Use of metformin is not associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2012;21(2):280–6.
Kowall B, Stang A, Rathmann W, Kostev K. No reduced risk of overall, colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancer with metformin therapy in diabetic patients: database analyses from Germany and the UK. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2015;24(8):865–74.
Squires J, Roebothan B, Buehler S, Sun Z, Cotterchio M, Younghusband B, Dicks E, Mclaughlin JR, Parfrey PS, Wang PP. Pickled meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC): a case–control study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21(9):1513–21.
Sriamporn S, Wiangnon S, Suwanrungruang K, Rungsrikaji D, Sukprasert A, Thipsuntornsak N, Satitvipawee P, Poomphakwaen K, Tokudome S. Risk factors for colorectal Cancer in Northeast Thailand: lifestyle related. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8:573–7.
Marmot M, Atinmo T, Byers T, Chen J, Hirohata T, Jackson A, James W, Kolonel L, Kumanyika S, Leitzmann C. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective; 2007.
Torres Stone RA, Waring ME, Cutrona SL, Kiefe CI, Allison J, Doubeni CA. The association of dietary quality with colorectal cancer among normal weight, overweight and obese men and women: a prospective longitudinal study in the USA. BMJ Open. 2017;7(6).
Jayasekara H, English DR, Haydon A, Hodge AM, Lynch BM, Rosty C, Williamson EJ, Clendenning M, Southey MC, Jenkins MA, et al. Associations of alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity and obesity with survival following colorectal cancer diagnosis by stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular subtype. Int J Cancer. 2018;142(2):238–50.
Aran V, Victorino AP, Thuler LC, Ferreira CG. Colorectal Cancer: epidemiology, disease mechanisms and interventions to reduce onset and mortality. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2016;15(3):195–203.
Opdenakker R. Advantages and disadvantages of four interview techniques in qualitative. Research. 2006;2006:7(4).
Greenhalgh T, Taylor R. Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research). BMJ: British Medical Journal. 1997;315(7110):740.
Tsoi KK, Pau CY, Wu WK, Chan FK, Griffiths S, Sung JJ. Cigarette smoking and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;7(6):682–8 e685.
Berkson J. Limitations of the application of fourfold table analysis to hospital data. Biometrics. 1946;2(3):47–53.