- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of GPX2 protein expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
© The Author(s). 2016
- Received: 21 January 2016
- Accepted: 27 June 2016
- Published: 7 July 2016
Chaoshan region, a littoral area of Guangdong province in southern China, has a high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). At present, the prognosis of ESCC is still very poor, therefore, there is urgent need to seek valuable molecular biomarker for prognostic evaluation to guide clinical treatment. GPX2, a selenoprotein, was exclusively expressed in gastrointestinal tract and has an anti-oxidative damage and anti-tumour effect in the progress of tumourigenesis.
We collected 161 ESCC patients samples, among which 83 patients were followed up. We employed immunochemistry analysis, western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR for measuring the expression of GPX2 within ESCC samples. We analysed the relationship between the expression of GPX2 and clinicopathological parameters of 161 patients with ESCC by Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. The survival analysis of GPX2 expression within ESCC tissues was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression.
A significant higher expression level of GPX2 was detected in tumour tissues compared to that in non-tumour tissues (P < 0.001). Moreover, GPX2 expression has statistically significant difference in the tumour histological grade of ESCC (P < 0.001), while there was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, tumour size, tumour location, gross morphology and clinical TNM stages (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression of GPX2 protein was obviously down-regulated within poorly differentiated ESCC. Last, survival analysis revealed that tumour histological grade and clinical TNM stages, both of the clinical pathological parameters of ESCC, were associated with the prognosis of patients with ESCC (respectively, P = 0.009, HR (95 % CI) = 1.885 (1.212 ~ 2.932); P = 0.007, HR (95 % CI) = 2.046 (1.318 ~ 3.177)). More importantly, loss expression of GPX2 protein predicted poor prognosis in patients with ESCC (P < 0.001, HR (95 % CI) = 5.700 (2.337 ~ 13.907)).
Collectively, these results suggested that the expression of GPX2 was significantly up-regulated within ESCC tumour tissues. GPX2 might be an important predictor for the prognosis of ESCC and a potential target for intervention and treatment of ESCC.
- Clinicopathological parameters
Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is one of the most common digestive tract malignancies worldwide, and respectively ranks 8th and 6th in terms of cancer incidence and mortality rate . The Chaoshan area of Guangdong province in China is a high incidence district of EC, where the main histologic type of EC is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). For most patients with EC, the first time going to a doctor is usually started after dysphagia, which means most patients are diagnosed with EC in the mid-late stage of the disease. Unfortunately, the 5-year survival rate of patients with EC ranges from 6 to 50 %, but generally less than 30 % . Thus, the early detection of tumour prognostic factors is essential to patients with EC.
Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2), also known as the glutathione peroxidase (GI-GPX), belongs to the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase family. The antioxidant enzyme family has eight known glutathione peroxidases (GPX1-8) in human . Interestingly, the antioxidant enzyme family obviously exhibits a tissue-specific expression . GPX2 is exclusively expressed in gastrointestinal tract, but in human, GPX2 is also expressed in liver , and has been suggested to protect against oxidative damage from food . At present, the overexpression of GPX2 protein is detected in neoplastic transformation of squamous epithelia cells , Barrett’s esophagus , lung cancer , breast cancer , colorectal cancer [11, 12], hepatocellular carcinoma  and castration-resistant prostate cancer . Intriguingly, GPX2 may be a candidate as a prognostic marker for castration-resistant prostate cancer . However, the expression of GPX2 within ESCC is rarely reported, and the relationship between GPX2 expression and ESCC prognosis is still unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of GPX2 protein was significantly up-regulated within ESCC tumour tissues compared with non-tumour tissues. More importantly, the expression of GPX2 protein might be correlated with the prognosis of patients with ESCC.
Patients and tissue specimen
Immunohistochemical staining was performed using the Envision Labelled Peroxidase System (Dako, carpinteria, CA). For immunohistochemical analysis, deparaffinised sections of the tissues were incubated with 1:100 diluted Pierce anti-GPX2 (Rabbit polyclonal antibody, PA5-27150, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Taiwan). The sections were allowed to develop in 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Negative [PBS instead of primary antibody or isotype-matched non-specific IgG (normal rabbit IgG, A7016, Beyotime, China) (Additional file 1: Figure S1)] and positive (gastric carcinoma) controls were used to confirm the specificity of the primary antibodies. After mounting, sections were scanned by Aperio ePathology AT2 (Leica Biosystems, Germany) and images were captured using a Aperio ImageScope (Version 12.1, Leica Biosystems, Germany) at 40× and 200× magnification. The quantitation of GPX2 cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was determinated by the product of the dyeing intensity and the expression rate. The dyeing intensity was divided into four degrees including 0, 1, 2 and 3. When the product was more than 0.5, the expression of GPX2 protein within ESCC tissues was defined as GPX2-positive expression (GPX2+); when less than 0.5, it was defined as GPX2-negative expression (GPX2-).
RNA preparation and quantitative RT-PCR
The freshly tumour, PN and DN tissue samples from 7 patients with ESCC were stored in −80°C freezer. After thawing, total RNA was extracted from the freshly tissue samples using an RNeasy MiNi Kit (TianGen, Beijing, China). Reverse transcription was performed using a PrimeScript RT Master Mix Perfect Real Time 100 Reactions Kit (TaKaRa, Dalian, China). For measurement of GPX2 mRNA level, RT-PCR was performed with SYBR Premix EX TaqTM II (TaKaRa, Dalian, China). Primer sequences were 5’ - TGCAACCAATTTGGACATCAG - 3’ and 5’- AGACAGGATGCTCGTTCTGC-3’ for human GPX2; 5’-CAGCCTCAAGATCATCAGCA - 3’ and 5’ - ATGATGTTCTGGAGAGCCCC - 3’ for human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The following experiments were performed in triplicate in a 7300 Real-Time PCR System (ABI, USA). Analysis of relative GPX2 gene expression data was using real-time quantitative PCR and the the 2−ΔΔCT Method .
Western blotting analysis
The freshly tumour, PN and DN tissue samples from 6 patients with ESCC and freshly tumour tissue samples from other 6 patients with ESCC were lysed in RIPA buffer in the presence of 1 × protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma-Aldrich, USA). 50 μg of total protein was resolved on 10 % sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and transferred onto PVDF membranes (0.45 μm, Amersham Pharmacia, USA). The expression level of GPX2 was assessed by Pierce anti-GPX2 (Rabbit polyclonal antibody, 24 kDa, 1:1000, PA5-27150, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Taiwan). Beta actin (β-actin) expression was evaluated to confirm equal amounts of protein loading using a mouse monoclonal anti-beta-actin antibody (42 kDa, 1:10000, Mab1445, Sigma-Aldrich, USA). After incubated with Goat anti-rabbit or mouse antibody (1:10000, 680RD, LI-COR biosciences, Germany), identification of the bands was scanned by Odyssey infrared imaging system (LI-COR biosciences, Germany). The outcome images were exported by Odyssey application software (Version 3.0, LI-COR biosciences, Germany).
All data was analysed with SPSS statistics software (Version 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Relationships between GPX2 expression and ESCC clinicopathological features were studied using the Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. The GPX2 expression of tumor tissues compared with that of non-tumour tissues including PN and DN tissues was studied by the independent-samples test. Survival time was calculated from the date of surgery to the date of death or the last follow-up time. The correlation of different survival time with ESSC characteristics, clinical features and GPX2 were evaluated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to analyse survival differences. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated by univariate or multivariate Cox regression analysis. In order to identify the predictors of ESCC outcome, we used Cox stepwise regression for calculation with a significance level of P < 0.05 for entering and P > 0.10 for removing the respective explanatory variables. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant difference.
GPX2 protein was overexpressed within ESCC tumour tissues
Expression of GPX2 protein significantly correlated with tumour histological grade of ESCC
The relationship between GPX2 protein expression and ESCC patients’ clinicopathological characteristics
≤ 58 years
> 58 years
≤ 4.5 cm
> 4.5 cm
Negatively-expression of GPX2 protein predicted a poorer prognosis in ESCC patients
Survival analysis of the clinical pathological parameters
MST (95 % CI)
Log-rank P value
HR (95 % CI)
≤ 58 years
> 58 years
≤ 4.5 cm
> 4.5 cm
Survival analysis of 83 patients between GPX2 + and GPX2 −
MST (95 % CI)
One-year survival rate (%)
Log-rank P value
Cox regression of 83 patients with ESCC
HR 95 % CI
EC is an aggressive malignant neoplasm with a poor prognosis. The 5-year survival rates of patients with EC ranges from 15 to 24% . In China, EC ranks 5th in the most common cancer and 4th in the leading cause of cancer death . The two major histological subtypes of EC is ESCC and esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC). In contrast to EAC, ESCC has a high prevalence in Asia and South Africa . The consumption of hot food and beverages is considered as an increased risk of esophageal cancer, particularly ESCC . The traditional treatment, like surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, do not bring a greater benefits to patients with EC. Even worse, there is no a better prognostic factor which can predict the life expectancy of patients with EC. Therefore, the prognostic factor of EC should deserve to make it.
Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) is a family of antioxidant enzymes. The biochemical function of GPXs is to reduce H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides to water or their corresponding alcohols respectively . At the present, the GPX family consists of eight members: GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, GPX5, GPX6, GPX7 and GPX8 . In particular, GPX2, also a selenium-dependent enzyme, is specifically expressed within the gastrointestinal tract in human being . Therefore, GPX2 can be considered as one of the most important defence systems against oxidative damage from the consumption of hot food and beverages. Impressively, GPX2 has an anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour effect in the course of the tumorigenesis . Compared with normal tissues, cancer cells produce a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS)  and cancer tissues suffer from a severer oxidative damage [25, 26]. As expected, the expression of GPX2 protein is up-regulated within various cancer tissues.
Based on epidemiological study, the reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire showed the daily intake of selenium was 81.8~231.2 μg in the diets of Chaoshan inhabitants , and in our previous study, the hair selenium level of Chaoshan inhabitants was about 0.48 mg/L . According to the 50~250 μg of suitable range of the daily selenium intake of Chinese residents , the selenium supply of inhabitants in Chaoshan region is appropriate. Convincingly, GPX2 protein was significantly overexpressed within ESCC tumour tissues compared with non-tumour tissues in this study. GPX2 may play an important role in anti-tumour within ESCC tumour tissues, while ESCC with a loss expression of GPX2 protein is prone to progress to the poor differentiated ESCC. Because of the limited samples with follow-up, whether or not GPX2 is expected to be a monitoring prognostic factor of patients with ESCC, it is still open for further experimentation.
To sum up, the expression of GPX2 protein was significantly up-regulated within ESCC tumour tissues compared with non-tumour tissues. GPX2 might be an important predictor for the prognosis of patients with ESCC.
ESCC, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; GPX2, glutathione peroxidase 2
We are sincerely grateful to Runhua Lin for critically reading the manuscript.
This study was sponsored by NSFC-Guangdong Joint Fund Key Project (Certificates U1132004) and NSFC (Certificates 31171226).
Availability of data and materials
The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included within the article and its Supplementary material Figure S1 and Figure S2. The dataset will be shared upon request.
MS and DPT conceived and supervised the study. ZJL performed the experiments, did all of the data analysis and wrote the manuscript with help from all of authors. CZ participated in some of the experiments. SKZ participated in some of writing the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript.
All authors come from the Department of Pathology and Institute of Clinical Pathology. ZJL is a Ph.D. student. DPT is a pathologist and a professor. CZ is a Ph.D. student. SKZ is a technician. MS is a pathologist and a professor, and a director of the Department of Pathology and Institute of Clinical Pathology and the Forensic Identification center of Shantou University.
All authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study was approved by the ethical board of Shantou University Medical College before the experimental protocol was employed, verbal informed consent was obtained from patients and their families.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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