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Table 2 Odds ratios (OR), population attributable risks (PAR) and confidence intervals (95 % CI) for oral cavity cancer associated with body mass index, family history of head and neck cancer, history of oral candidiasis, and tea consumption, overall and by subsite, gender and age. ICARE study

From: Population attributable risks of oral cavity cancer to behavioral and medical risk factors in France: results of a large population-based case–control study, the ICARE study

   Cases Controls OR (95 % CI)a PAR (95 % CI)a
N = 689 N = 3481
E+/E- E+/E-
Body mass index 2 years before the interview <25 kg.m−2 vs. ≥25 kg.m−2
 Oral cavity overall   408/253 1405/1944 2.4 (1.8–3.0) 35.3 % (25.7–43.6)
 By subsite Base of tongue 67/56 1405/1944 2.9 (1.8–5.0) 42.4 % (20.5–58.2)
  Mobile tongue 91/64 1405/1944 1.9 (1.2–2.9) 25.8 % (5.1–42.1)
  Gums 23/13 1405/1944 4.2 (1.5–12.2) 55.1 % (4.7–78.9)
  Floor of mouth 110/71 1405/1944 2.4 (1.6–3.6) 35.3 % (17.9–49.1)
  Soft palate 49/22 1405/1944 2.6 (1.4–4.8) 37.6 % (9.6–56.9)
  Other parts of the mouth 56/22 1405/1944 2.7 (1.4–5.1) 39.1 % (10.1–58.8)
 By gender Male 332/203 1022/1600 2.8 (2.1–3.6) 39.9 % (30.0–48.3)
  Female 76/50 383/344 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 4.2 % (−38.4–33.7)
 By age <45 33/12 222/177 3.1 (1.0–9.1) 47.3 % (2.1–72.8)
  45–60 272/144 601/797 2.6 (1.8–3.6) 40.4 % (27.3–51.2)
  >60 103/97 582/970 2.1 (1.4–3.1) 26.7 % (11.3–39.5)
Family history of head and neck cancer (yes vs. no)
 Oral cavity overall   68/462 157/2784 1.9 (1.3–2.8) 5.8 % (0.6–10.8)
 By subsite Base of tongue 17/73 157/2784 2.6 (1.3–5.3) 11.2 % (−0.9–21.9)
  Mobile tongue 17/106 157/2784 2.5 (1.3–4.8) 8.6 % (−0.9–17.3)
  Gums 1/24 157/2784 0.9 (0.1–7.5) - **
  Floor of mouth 13/138 157/2784 1.6 (0.8–3.3) 3.4 % (−5.0–11.1)
  Soft palate 9/50 157/2784 2.4 (0.9–6.1) 7.0 % (−6.1–18.6)
  Other parts of the mouth 5/58 157/2784 1.1 (0.3–3.3) 0.6 % (−12.5–12.2)
 By gender Male 54/375 120/2184 2.1 (1.4–3.3) 6.8 % (1.0–12.2)
  Female 10/87 37/600 1.3 (0.4–3.9) 2.1 % (−12.9–15.1)
 By age <45 3/35 16/353 4.9 (0.9–27.2) 8.5 % (−14.1–26.7)
  45–60 41/293 67/1189 2.0 (1.1–3.6) 6.7 % (−0.4–13.3)
  >60 20/134 74/1242 1.6 (0.8–3.0) 4.0 % (−4.1–11.5)
Personal history of oral candidiasis (yes vs. no)
 Oral cavity overall   14/645 80/3224 4.2 (1.7–10.5) 1.9 % (−2.1–5.7)
 By subsite Base of tongue 3/120 80/3224 1.7 (0.2–17.3) 0.6 % (−7.1–7.7)
  Mobile tongue 5/145 80/3224 9.2 (2.9–29.1) 4.9 % (−1.8–11.3)
  Gums 0/36 80/3224 not estimated  
  Floor of mouth 3/180 80/3224 3.9 (0.8–20.2) 1.2 % (−5.2–7.3)
  Soft palate 1/71 80/3224 3.3 (0.3–35.9) 1.4 % (−7.8–9.9)
  Other parts of the mouth 1/77 80/3224 3.6 (0.4–32.9) 1.6 % (−7.3–9.7)
 By gender Male 10/526 41/2548 2.9 (0.8–10.1) 1.2 % (−3.2–5.3)
  Female 4/119 39/676 5.2 (1.1–24.8) 4.6 % (−6.9–14.8)
 By age <45 0/41 21/389 not estimated  
  45–60 10/403 27/1341 9.8 (2.7–35.9) 2.9 % (−2.2–7.8)
  >60 4/201 32/1494 1.6 (0.3–8.6) 0.6 % (−5.1–5.9)
Tea consumption (never vs. ever)
 Oral cavity overall   443/150 2025/1334 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 30.3 % (14.4–43.3)
 By subsite Base of tongue 80/37 2025/1334 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.1 % (−44.6–30.9)
  Mobile tongue 102/36 2025/1334 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 23.2 % (−13.2–47.9)
  Gums 20/10 2025/1334 1.9 (0.6–6.0) 36.1 % (−57.3–74.0)
  Floor of mouth 128/38 2025/1334 1.5 (0.9–2.3) 23.6 % (−7.1–45.4)
  Soft palate 48/13 2025/1334 4.3 (1.7–10.7) 67.5 % (29.3–85.0)
  Other parts of the mouth 55/13 2025/1334 4.2 (1.6–11.1) 67.6 % (24.1–86.2)
 By gender Male 377/99 1692/928 1.9 (1.4–2.6) 38.0 % (21.3–51.2)
  Female 66/51 333/406 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 13.9 % (−18.1–37.3)
 By age <45 231/172 28/14 2.3 (0.7–7.8) 45.7 % (−37.1–78.5)
  45–60 848/561 284/93 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 22.2 % (−3.22–41.2)
  >60 946/601 131/43 1.9 (1.3–3.1) 38.2 % (13.0–56.1)
  1. **Negative population attributable risk (OR < 1 and not significant)
  2. aLogistic model adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education level, tobacco and alcohol consumption, BMI 2 years before the interview, family history of head and neck cancer, history of candidiasis and tea consumption
  3. E+ exposed subject/E- non-exposed subject to a risk factor