- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Site-specific relapse pattern of the triple negative tumors in Chinese breast cancer patients
- Yanping Lin†1,
- Wenjin Yin†2, 3,
- Tingting Yan2, 3,
- Liheng Zhou2, 3,
- Genhong Di2, 3,
- Jiong Wu2, 3,
- Zhenzhou Shen2, 3,
- Zhimin Shao2, 3 and
- Jinsong Lu2, 3Email author
© Lin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 18 April 2009
- Accepted: 24 September 2009
- Published: 24 September 2009
It has been reported that triple negative phenotype is characterized by aggressive clinical history in Western breast cancer patients, however its pattern of metastatic spread had never been reported in the Chinese population. Considering racial disparities, we sought to analyze the spread pattern for different sites of first recurrence in Chinese triple negative breast cancers.
A retrospective study of 1662 patients was carried out from a large database of breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2004 at the Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method and annual relapse hazards were estimated by the hazard function.
We found a statistically significant difference in relapse-free survival (RFS) for locoregional and visceral recurrence (P = 0.007 and P = 0.025, respectively) among the triple negative, ERBB2+ and HR+/ERBB2- subgroups in univariate analysis. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, RFS for either locoregional or visceral relapse in the triple negative category was inferior to that in HR+/ERBB2- patients (P = 0.027 and P = 0.005, respectively), but comparable to that in ERBB2+ women (both P > 0.05). Furthermore, the early relapse peak appeared later in the triple negative group than that in the ERBB2+ counterpart for both locoregional and visceral relapse. On the other hand, when compared with triple negative breast cancers, a significantly lower risk of developing bone relapse was discerned for ERBB2+ women (P = 0.048; HR = 0.384, 95% CI 0.148-0.991), with the borderline significance for HR+/ERBB2- breast cancers (P = 0.058; HR = 0.479, 95% CI 0.224-1.025). In terms of bone metastasis, the hazard rate remained higher for the triple negative category than that for the ERBB2+ subtype.
Based on the site-specific spread pattern in different subgroups, the triple negative category of breast cancers in the Chinese population exhibits a different pattern of relapse, which indicates that different organotropism may be due to the different intrinsic subtypes. A better knowledge of the triple negative category is warranted for efficacious systemic regimens to decrease and/or delay the relapse hazard.
- Hormone Receptor
- Triple Negative Breast Cancer
- Visceral Metastasis
- Intrinsic Subtype
- Triple Negative Tumor
Recent advances in genomic techniques have led to the classification of breast cancer into five distinct subtypes: the luminal A, luminal B, ERBB2+, normal breast-like and basal-like subtype . The fifth group is roughly synonymous with triple negative breast cancer, featuring absent expression of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptors. Although systemic therapy, together with targeted treatment, has revealed a considerable impact on the improvement of prognosis, there is to date no recommended regimen for triple negative women due to the scarcity of data as well as the dearth of target.
The triple negative category generally makes up 10-15% of breast cancers . However, the prevalence varies widely by race. This subgroup occurred at a higher incidence (39%) in pre-menopausal African American women , whereas there was a rather lower frequency (18%) in Chinese patients , much similar to the Japanese series (8-14%) [5, 6]. Manifold data demonstrated the detrimental effect of triple negative phenotype on survival in Western populations [3, 7–13], as opposed to more favorable prognosis in Chinese as well as Japanese counterparts [4, 5]. Despite racial preference, these results provide support for the increasing recognition that breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease categorized as different subgroups with a wide spectrum of clinical, pathological and molecular features . Therefore, it hints at a demand for further investigation on the intrinsic characteristics of triple negative tumors in different populations including Chinese patients.
Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in hazard function, which highlights changes of the event probability over time. When it comes to the triple negative category, its unique time distribution of recurrence risk, as distinguished from that for the other subtypes, has been reported in both Western series and our previous study [4, 10]. Nevertheless, such information is still not available with regard to different sites of first recurrence. Current data indicate that the triple negative group is more prone to visceral metastases, local relapse and cerebral metastases rather than bone metastases as compared to women with non-triple negative tumors [13–15]. Unfortunately, prior studies were almost confined to Western populations and almost conducted by way of dichotomization. And most dichotomized cases according to hormone receptor status or as triple negative/non-triple negative, which obscures the superiority of ERBB2 status to hormone receptor (HR) status as a prognosticator in breast cancer . Considering the discrepancies in races and subgroups, it remains unclear whether the site-specific relapse pattern is similar or not for Chinese triple negative patients, which serves as a reminder of the need for exploration to promote a better understanding of organotropic nature between various races and subgroups.
In view of the above points, a retrospective analysis was carried out to further elucidate the spread pattern for different sites of first recurrence in Chinese triple negative breast cancer patients as compared to ERBB2+ and HR+/ERBB2- peers. In this way, we sought to get a clear picture of the predisposition to organ metastases for Chinese triple negative breast cancer patients, thereby, shedding more light on the underlying distinction in biological behavior between different subgroups.
A total of 1662 patients were selected retrospectively from a large database of patients who underwent surgery between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2004 at the Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Before surgery, the following evaluations were mandatory for each patient as complete physical examination, chest radioscopy, bilateral mammography, ECG, ultrasonography of breasts, axillary fossa, cervical parts, abdomen, and pelvis, complete blood count, and routine biochemical tests to make an exact staging. Thereafter, each patient received lumpectomy or mastectomy followed by adjuvant therapy according to the guidelines or recommendations used at the time of surgery.
Eligibility criteria for this analysis, similar to other relevant reports [17, 18], included female gender, an initial diagnosis of unilateral primary breast cancer without distant metastases, at least 2 months of follow-up information for disease recurrence, and complete data on the following: age, tumor size, number of involved axillary lymph nodes, status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) as well as ERBB2. All eligible patients in the database were included. All data were entered into a computerized database and verified to minimize errors in data entry.
Follow-up information regarding tumor recurrence and survival status was accomplished through patients' clinic visits with records kept in the computerized database of the outpatient department, personal contact with the patient as well as the assistance of Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Thereinto, personal contact with the patient referred to routine correspondence or telephone visits, which were carried out at the Cancer Hospital, Fudan University every 3 months during the first two years, every 6 months during the next two years and once a year thereafter. As this was a retrospective study without any medical intervention, the ethical approval was not required.
Immunohistochemical staining was carried out as a standard operating procedure in the pathology department of Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. All primary monoclonal antibodies for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and ERBB2 were from Dako. The staining results were assessed by at least two pathologists, using a semiquantitative scoring system, where integrated the proportion score and the intensity score. The proportion score, indicating the percentage of tumor cells stained, was interpreted such that a score of 0 required no staining seen, 1 required ≤25% of cells positive, 2 required 25-50% of cells stained, 3 required 50-75% of positive cells and 4 required >75% of staining cells. As to the intensity score, a negative result was defined as a score of 0, weakly positive as 1, moderately positive as 2, and strongly positive as 3. The final score was calculated as the product of the proportion score and the intensity score. Thereby, staining results ranged from score 0 to 12. The scoring system for ER and PR was defined as negative for score 0 and positive for scores of 1~12 with the nucleic staining of carcinoma cells, whereas ERBB2 was defined as negative for scores of 0~8 (namely, 0, 1+ and 2+ in the DAKO scoring system) and positive for strong membranous staining with scores of 9~12 (namely DAKO score 3+).
Clinicopathological parameters were compared between different subgroups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for continuous variables, chi-square test for unordered categorical variables and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank test for ordinal categorical variables.
Site-specific relapse-free survival (RFS) was defined as the time from surgery to the earliest occurrence of an event, including locoregional, visceral and bone relapse. Locoregional failure was defined as a first relapse on the chest wall or in the ipsilateral breast, the ipsilateral axilla, the ipsilateral supraclavicular or infraclavicular fossa, or the ipsilateral internal mammary region , which was required to be identified by biopsy or fine needle aspiration. Visceral metastasis was established if there was any radiological evidence of metastases to viscera (including lung, liver and brain). Bone relapse was defined as metastases to bone without visceral metastasis. Any suspicious lesions on bone scan should be confirmed by further X-ray or CT/MRI examination. Those without any evidence of event were censored at the last date they were known to be alive.
Survival analyses were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were applied to modeling the relationship between subgroup and RFS, adjusted for age (≤50 vs. >50), tumor size (≤2 cm vs. >2 cm), number of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) involved (0, 1-3, ≥4), histological grade (I/II vs. III) and systemic treatment (yes vs. no). Hazard ratios (HRs) were presented with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For graphical display of RFS, annual hazard rates were estimated using a Kernel method of smoothing. All statistical tests were two sided and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed with Stata statistical software package (release 10.0; Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA).
Summary of subgroup characteristics in 1662 patients
n = 321
n = 444
n = 897
Mean age at diagnosis (year, ± SD)
52.02 ± 10.49
52.12 ± 9.99
53.16 ± 11.56
≤ 2 cm
Number of ALNs involved
Mean TTE (years)
Mean TTE (years)
Mean TTE (years)
Locoregional RFS and relapse hazard
Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of RFS for locoregional, bone and visceral relapse in 1662 breast cancer patients
Univariate Cox model, HRs (95% CI)
Multivariate Cox model, HRs (95% CI)
Visceral RFS and relapse hazard
Bone RFS and relapse hazard
This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first as well as the largest retrospective analysis on site-specific relapse pattern for triple negative tumors in Chinese breast cancer patients. As to locoregional failure, we demonstrated that RFS for the triple negative category was inferior to that for HR+/ERBB2- patients, but comparable to that for ERBB2+ women. Up to now, several studies have been reported with conflicting results. According to Rodriguez-Pinilla's reports, a higher percentage of local recurrence arose in triple negative tumors , which was somewhat congruent with our analysis. In contrast, other researchers found no significant association of triple negative phenotype with shorter local relapse-free survival (LRFS) [15, 20]. Additionally, Haffty's observation revealed that the triple negative cohort had a predilection for relapse in regional nodes with marginal significance (P = 0.05) , which partly supported our findings.
Although Dent and colleagues observed a prominent increase in the rate of visceral metastasis for triple negative patients when compared with that for non-triple negative patients , it still remains unclear whether triple negative patients have a greater risk of visceral metastasis than ERBB2+ patients. We found that the risk of developing a visceral metastasis as the site of the first recurrence was significantly higher in women with triple negative and ERBB2+ breast cancers than in women with HR+/ERBB2- tumors. Besides, we also documented that the peak in the hazard rate for visceral metastasis was later for triple negative patients than ERBB2+ patients. These findings suggest that the pattern of visceral metastasis for the triple negative cases may be intermediate between that for HR+/ERBB2- and ERBB2+ groups in Chinese breast cancer patients.
Hormone receptor status has been accepted as sufficiently established to predict the risk of bone metastasis in breast cancer [22, 23]. With the considerable understanding of intrinsic molecular subtypes, it is far from satisfactory to determine the clinical outcome exclusively by HR status. It has been reported that there was no difference in the rate of bone metastasis between triple negative and non triple negative groups [13, 21]. Unfortunately, the previous studies overlooked the respective contribution of HR and ERBB2 status to the development of bone spread. In the present analysis, the triple negative phenotype brought about a dramatic increase in the hazard of developing bone metastasis with statistical significance compared with ERBB2+ subtype (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a similar trend was also observed between triple negative and HR+/ERBB2- groups with borderline significance (P = 0.058). In this sense, those with ERBB2+ tumors metastasized less often to bone than ERBB2- breast cancers, which was relatively consistent with Kallioniemi's findings . Taken together, all of these data inferred that the ERBB2 status, besides HR status, should be taken into account when talking about the risk of bone metastasis, as exemplified by triple negativity.
This study has some potential and inevitable limitations due to its retrospective nature. Recurrences might be somewhat underreported or misinformed for a substantial portion of the patients in this database; nonetheless, underreporting or misinformation of recurrences would have not varied by clinicopathological parameters . We did not evaluate the effect of treatment on survival in the present study, but all the hazard ratios were adjusted for treatment administered . Furthermore, the limited sample size and the lack of more detailed molecular profiling are also potential weaknesses.
In conclusion, our data show that preferential relapse sites for triple negative breast cancers may be quite distinct from that for HR+/ERBB2- and ERBB2+ counterparts in Chinese breast cancer patients. It indicates that different organotropism may be due to the different intrinsic subtypes. Therefore, a better knowledge of organotropism in different intrinsic subtypes is warranted for efficacious systemic treatment to decrease and/or delay the recurrence hazard.
We wish to thank all the patients included in this study.
- Sorlie T, Tibshirani R, Parker J, Hastie T, Marron JS, Nobel A, Deng S, Johnsen H, Pesich R, Geisler S, et al: Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100 (14): 8418-8423. 10.1073/pnas.0932692100.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Cleator S, Heller W, Coombes RC: Triple-negative breast cancer: therapeutic options. Lancet Oncol. 2007, 8: 235-244. 10.1016/S1470-2045(07)70074-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carey LA, Perou CM, Livasy CA, Dressler LG, Cowan D, Conway K, Karaca G, Troester MA, Tse CK, Edmiston S, et al: Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. JAMA. 2006, 295 (21): 2492-2502. 10.1001/jama.295.21.2492.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yin WJ, Lu JS, Di GH, Lin YP, Zhou LH, Liu GY, Wu J, Shen KW, Han QX, Shen ZZ, et al: Clinicopathological features of the triple-negative tumors in Chinese breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009, 115 (2): 325-333. 10.1007/s10549-008-0096-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurebayashi J, Moriya T, Ishida T, Hirakawa H, Kurosumi M, Akiyama F, Kinoshita T, Takei H, Takahashi K, Ikeda M, et al: The prevalence of intrinsic subtypes and prognosis in breast cancer patients of different races. Breast. 2007, 16 (Suppl 2): S72-77. 10.1016/j.breast.2007.07.017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olopade OI, Ikpatt FO, Dignam JJ, Khramtsov A, Tetriakova M, Grushko T, Fackenthal J, Nanda R, Ndoma-Egba R, CM P: "Intrinsic Gene Expression" subtypes correlated with grade and morphometric parameters reveal a high proportion of aggressive basal-like tumors among black women of African ancestry. American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting: 5-8 June 2004; New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. 2004Google Scholar
- Carey LA, Dees EC, Sawyer L, Gatti L, Moore DT, Collichio F, Ollila DW, Sartor CI, Graham ML, CM P: The triple negative paradox: primary tumor chemosensitivity of breast cancer subtypes. Clin Cancer Res. 2004, 15: 2329-2334.Google Scholar
- Nielsen TO, Hsu FD, Jensen K, Cheang M, Karaca G, Hu Z, Hernandez-Boussard T, Livasy C, Cowan D, Dressler L, et al: Immunohistochemical and clinical characterization of the basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004, 10 (16): 5367-5374. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0220.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sorlie T, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, Aas T, Geisler S, Johnsen H, Hastie T, Eisen MB, Rijn van de M, Jeffrey SS, et al: Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98 (19): 10869-10874. 10.1073/pnas.191367098.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bauer KR, Brown M, Cress RD, Parise CA, Caggiano V: Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California cancer Registry. Cancer. 2007, 109 (9): 1721-1728. 10.1002/cncr.22618.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dent R, Trudeau M, Pritchard KI, Hanna WM, Kahn HK, Sawka CA, Lickley LA, Rawlinson E, Sun P, Narod SA: Triple-negative breast cancer: clinical features and patterns of recurrence. Clin Cancer Res. 2007, 13 (15 Pt 1): 4429-4434. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-3045.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Banerjee S, Reis-Filho JS, Ashley S, Steele D, Ashworth A, Lakhani SR, Smith IE: Basal-like breast carcinomas: clinical outcome and response to chemotherapy. J Clin Pathol. 2006, 59 (7): 729-735. 10.1136/jcp.2005.033043.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Pinilla SM, Sarrio D, Honrado E, Hardisson D, Calero F, Benitez J, Palacios J: Prognostic significance of basal-like phenotype and fascin expression in node-negative invasive breast carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2006, 12 (5): 1533-1539. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-2281.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang BW, Decker RH, Haffy BG, et al: Incidence of brain metastases in early-stage triple negative breast cancer patients. the 49th American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Annual Meeting: 28 October-1 November 2007; Los Angeles, California, USA. 2007Google Scholar
- Haffty BG, Yang Q, Reiss M, Kearney T, Higgins SA, Weidhaas J, Harris L, Hait W, Toppmeyer D: Locoregional relapse and distant metastasis in conservatively managed triple negative early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006, 24 (36): 5652-5657. 10.1200/JCO.2006.06.5664.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Joensuu H, Isola J, Lundin M, Salminen T, Holli K, Kataja V, Pylkkanen L, Turpeenniemi-Hujanen T, von Smitten K, Lundin J: Amplification of erbB2 and erbB2 expression are superior to estrogen receptor status as risk factors for distant recurrence in pT1N0M0 breast cancer: a nationwide population-based study. Clin Cancer Res. 2003, 9 (3): 923-930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jatoi I, Tsimelzon A, Weiss H, Clark GM, Hilsenbeck SG: Hazard rates of recurrence following diagnosis of primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005, 89 (2): 173-178. 10.1007/s10549-004-1722-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McShane LM, Altman DG, Sauerbrei W, Taube SE, Gion M, Clark GM: REporting recommendations for tumor MARKer prognostic studies (REMARK). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006, 100 (2): 229-235. 10.1007/s10549-006-9242-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gruber G, Bonetti M, Nasi ML, Price KN, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Rudenstam CM, Holmberg SB, Lindtner J, Golouh R, Collins J, et al: Prognostic value of extracapsular tumor spread for locoregional control in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer treated with classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil: long-term observations from International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VI. J Clin Oncol. 2005, 23 (28): 7089-7097. 10.1200/JCO.2005.08.123.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tan DS, Marchio C, Jones RL, Savage K, Smith IE, Dowsett M, Reis-Filho JS: Triple negative breast cancer: molecular profiling and prognostic impact in adjuvant anthracycline-treated patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008, 111 (1): 27-44. 10.1007/s10549-007-9756-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dent R, Hanna WM, Trudeau M, Rawlinson E, Sun P, Narod SA: Pattern of metastatic spread in triple-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009, 115 (2): 423-428. 10.1007/s10549-008-0086-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coleman RE, Smith P, RD R: Clinical course and prognostic factors following bone recurrence from breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1998, 77 (2): 336-340.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Solomayer EF, Diel IJ, Meyberg GC, Gollan C, G B: Metastatic breast cancer: clinical course, prognosis and therapy related to the first site of metastasis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2000, 59 (3): 271-278. 10.1023/A:1006308619659.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kallioniemi OP, Holli K, Visakorpi T, Koivula T, Helin HH, JJ I: Association of c-erbB-2 protein over-expression with high rate of cell proliferation, increased risk of visceral metastasis and poor long-term survival in breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 1991, 49 (5): 650-655. 10.1002/ijc.2910490504.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arpino G, Weiss H, Lee AV, Schiff R, De Placido S, Osborne CK, Elledge RM: Estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer: association with growth factor receptor expression and tamoxifen resistance. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005, 97 (17): 1254-1261.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/9/342/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.