- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Analysis of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer after the failure of at least one earlier combination: An observational study
© Bartsch et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
- Received: 05 October 2005
- Accepted: 15 March 2006
- Published: 15 March 2006
Combining trastuzumab and chemotherapy is standard in her2/neu overexpressing advanced breast cancer. It is not established however, whether trastuzumab treatment should continue after the failure of one earlier combination. In this trial, we report our experience with continued treatment beyond disease progression.
Fifty-four patients, median age 46 years, range 25–73 years, were included. We analysed for time to tumour progression (TTP) for first, second and beyond second line treatment, response rates and overall survival.
Median time of observation was 24 months, range 7–51. Response rates for first line treatment were 7.4% complete remission (CR), 35.2% partial remissions (PR), 42.6% stable disease > 6 months (SD) and 14.8% of patients experienced disease progression despite treatment (PD). Corresponding numbers for second line were 3.7% CR, 22.2% PR, 42.6% SD and 31.5% PD; numbers for treatment beyond second line (60 therapies, 33 pts 3rd line, 18 pts 4th line, 6 pts 5th line, 2 pts 6th line and 1 patient 7th line) were 1.7% CR, 28.3% PR, 28.3% SD and 41.6% PD respectively. Median TTP was 6 months (m) in the first line setting, and also 6 m for second line and beyond second line. An asymptomatic drop of left ventricular ejection fraction below 50% was observed in one patient. No case of symptomatic congestive heart failure was observed.
The data presented clearly strengthen evidence that patients do profit from continued trastuzumab treatment. The fact that TTP did not decrease significantly from first line to beyond second line treatment is especially noteworthy. Still, randomized trials are warranted.
- Partial Remission
Breast cancer remains the main cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in most countries all over the world [1, 2]. While localised disease is potentially curable, even in stage I and II disease, 30 % of patients can be expected to experience a relapse . Especially at risk for cancer recurrence are patients of young age, nodal positive tumours and individuals with aggressive tumour phenotypes, defined as high or intermediate grade, endocrine receptor negative and/or her2/neu positive [4, 5]. When metastatic disease develops, appropriate therapeutic strategies are necessary to lengthen the patient's survival while not further reducing her quality of life.
In her2/neu positive tumours, a combination of chemotherapy and trastuzumab has proven to produce superior response rates and a longer time to progression than chemotherapy alone [6–10]. Trastuzumab is a monoclonal humanized antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2/neu), resulting in an anti-tumour activity whose exact mechanism of action is not yet fully understood. Antibody dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) is part of this mechanism, but also the blocking of post-receptor pathways and the inhibition of homo- and hetero-dimerization are thought to play a crucial role [11–13]. A benefit however can only be found in tumours with her2/neu 3+ over-expression in immunohistochemistry or in cells with her2/neu gene amplification, which is usually analysed by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) . Paclitaxel plus trastuzumab was the first combination regimen established . While in vitro studies were able to demonstrate an additive anti-tumour effect of this combination, other substances (vinorelbine, docetaxel, and cisplatin) showed a synergistic effect . In vivo, it was possible to demonstrate, that vinorelbine plus trastuzumab regimens are not only superior to paclitaxel containing regimens in terms of toxicity , but also in terms of response and survival [9, 10, 16, 18]. A recent study found docetaxel plus trastuzumab highly superior to docetaxel monotherapy as first line palliative treatment with little additional toxicity .
Today, a first line palliative combination of chemotherapy and trastuzumab can already be deemed standard. Still, it is not established whether or not patients do achieve a benefit from continuing trastuzumab treatment combined with a different chemotherapeutic agent after the failure of one earlier combination, as the way a resistance to trastuzumab develops is not yet understood entirely. Because of limited resources, also pharmacoeconomic aspects must be taken in account.
At our centre, patients were routinely treated with trastuzumab also in the second line and beyond second line setting. Individuals were observed prospectively, and we are reporting our experiences with trastuzumab treatment after the failure of at least one earlier trastuzumab containing therapy regimen.
All data were collected at the Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Oncology at the Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Treatment was performed in accordance with the ethical regulations of the Medical University of Vienna.
Fifty-four consecutive patients were included into to this trial after progressing on first line trastuzumab based treatment, and were followed prospectively. Prospective follow up of the first patient started in May 2002. The retrospective starting point of the study (i.e. the date the first patient received the first cycle of trastuzumab based 1st line therapy) was June 2001. All patients were suffering from histological confirmed her2/neu (HERcepTest+++/FISH positive) positive advanced breast cancer and were treated with at least two palliative lines of trastuzumab containing therapy regimens. For staging evaluations, CT-scan of the chest and the abdomen, mammography, echocardiography, and gynaecologic examination were mandatory at baseline.
Treatment plan and patient evaluation
All treatment was administered in the outpatient setting. Patients received trastuzumab in a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight loading dose on the first day of treatment, followed by 6 mg/kg body weight every three weeks . Re-evaluation of patients' tumour status was performed with CT-scan of the chest and the abdomen with additional work up if indicated every three cycles of therapy. Echocardiography was repeated at irregular intervals, longest every 6 months. Complete response (CR) was defined as the disappearance of all measurable lesions for a minimum of eight weeks. Partial response (PR) was defined as 25% or more reduction in sum of products of the greatest diameters of measurable lesions, no increase of lesion size and no new lesions. Stable disease (SD) was defined as less than 25% decrease and less than 25% increase without the appearance of new lesions. Progressive disease (PD) was defined as greater than 25% increase in tumour size or the appearance of new lesions.
Time to progression (TTP) was defined as the interval from the first day of application of a new therapy line until tumour progression. Data was analysed as of August 2005. TTP was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method . To test the difference between TTP curves, the log-rank test was used. p values less than 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Toxicity was evaluated according to the WHO criteria and was recorded per patient as the worst episode that occurred on a certain therapy. Echocardiography data were recorded, and development of left ventricular function during treatment was reported.
n = 54
Age median (years) (range)
46 years (range 25 – 73 y)
Estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor positive
primary metastatic disease
Metastatic sites median (range)
3 (range 1–7 sites)
More than one metastatic site
Adjuvant endocrine therapy
Palliative endocrine therapy
1st line combination
n = 54 pts
2nd line combination
n = 54 pts
Beyond 2nd line combination
n = 60 therapies
Most common combination partners were: vinorelbine (n = 55), docetaxel (n = 28), capecitabine (n = 28), gemcitabine (n = 25), platinum derivatives (n = 13), others (n = 28).
Response and survival data
Toxicities (n = 54 patients). (toxicities shown as worst episode per therapy)
Other toxicities observed were caused by the chemotherapy agents used as combination partners. A WHO grade IV neutropenia was observed in 5 patients, with no other grade IV toxicity reported. WHO grade III toxicities included stomatitis (2 patients), nausea (1 patient), neutropenia (14 patients), thrombocytopenia (2 patients), hand-foot-syndrome (3 patients) and anaemia (6 patients).
While there is some evidence from different other, mostly retrospective, trials reporting a benefit from continued trastuzumab treatment beyond disease progression with a changed chemotherapy regimen only [22–24], a discontinuation after disease progression is still standard of care. Though the here presented study is limited by the relatively small number of patients included, we are clearly able to strengthen existing evidence that there is a benefit for at least some patients.
The reported decline in response rates from 42.6% in first line treatment to 30% in beyond second line compares to the expected drop of response rates with every further line of chemotherapy or endocrine therapy in palliative treatment. Stable disease and objective response combined, clinical benefit rates were 85.2% in first line, 68.5% in second line and 58.3% in beyond second line. As some other groups, we believe this to be the more significant parameter in judging the efficacy of palliative treatment, as a stabilisation of the disease without excessive toxicity often appears more important than objective remission [25, 26]. The high clinical benefit rate of nearly 60% even beyond second line must be seen as a clear sign of a benefit that most patients gain from treatment continuation. It is also obvious from our here presented data that this benefit is not paid for by excess toxicity, as apart from a possible drop in cardiac output rate, no other major toxicity linked to trastuzumab was observed. This was especially important to us, as some patients included in this trial were treated with trastuzumab for more than 3 years. Notably, we did not find a case of symptomatic congestive heart failure. All other toxicities were well within the range expected from the different chemotherapy regimens. Still, in one patient, treatment had to be discontinued because of a drop in ejection fraction below 50%. So while trastuzumab based regimens are well tolerated also in medium and long term treatment, a monitoring of cardiac function remains essential. Echocardiography only in the case of symptoms appears not to be sufficient.
Of special interest is the fact, that we did not find a statistical significant difference in TTP between first line, second line and beyond second line trastuzumab based combinations. Although we rather expected to observe a shortening of time to disease progression with every further line of therapy, as this is the usual development in the metastatic setting, we believe this to be another sign of a potential benefit from continued combination treatment. TTP data from the different treatment lines (median 6 months in 1st line, 2nd line and beyond 2nd line) compare favourably to the data reported in the pivotal trastuzumab trial with median 6.9 months in combination with paclitaxel as first line therapy . As median overall survival was not yet reached, we believe that our survival data will be well beyond the median 25.4 months presented in the pivotal trial. These results are intriguing and somewhat unexpected, but still the necessity for larger, especially randomised, trials remains.
A big problem lies in the fact, that the mechanism of resistance to trastuzumab is not yet fully understood. If tumour cells are able to switch the main growth pathway from the her2/neu receptor to the EGFR or other signal transduction pathways, a continued treatment would not necessarily lead to a benefit. On the other hand, if no complete resistance develops, a discontinuation of trastuzumab might cause a massive overshoot in tumour growth, in which case only combination partners should be switched [28, 29]. With limited resources available, also economic aspects must be taken on account.
In conclusion, we are definitely able to strengthen evidence that her2/neu positive patients do profit from continued trastuzumab therapy, with a clinical benefit rate of 68.5% in the second line. We are to our best knowledge the first group reporting a similar TTP in 1st line, 2nd line and beyond 2nd line treatment, making our data especially noteworthy. Further, this is among the first studies reporting a beneficial role of trastuzumab combination even beyond second line. Albeit the here presented data, randomised trials are still warranted to make a final conclusion regarding treatment continuation possible.
- Boyle P, Ferlay J: Cancer incidence and mortality in Europe 2004. Ann Oncol. 2005, 2: 68-75.Google Scholar
- Hill C, Doyon F: The frequency of cancer in France in the year 2000, and trends since 1950. Bull Cancer. 2005, 92: 7-11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mollick JA, Carlson RW: Rational surveillance programs for early stage breast cancer patients after primary treatment. Breast Dis. 2004, 21: 47-54.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cianfranco M, Goldstein LJ: Prognostic and predictive factors in early-stage breast cancer. Oncologist. 2004, 9: 606-16. 10.1634/theoncologist.9-6-606.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Subramaniam DS, Isaacs C: Utilizing prognostic and predicative markers in breast cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2005, 6: 147-59.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ligibel JA, Winer EP: Trastuzumab/chemotherapy combinations in metastatic breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 2002, 29: 38-43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thomssen C: Trials of new combinations of Herceptin in metastatic breast cancer. Anticancer Drugs. 2001, 12 (Suppl 4): 19-25.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vogel CL, Franco SX: Clinical experience with trastuzumab (herceptin). Breast J. 2003, 9: 452-62. 10.1046/j.1524-4741.2003.09602.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burstein HJ, Harris LN, Marcom PK, Lambert-Falls R, Havlin K, Overmoyer B, Friedlander RJ, Gargiulo J, Strenger R, Vogel CL, Ryan PD, Ellis MJ, Nunes RA, Bunnell CA, Campos SM, Hallor M, Gelman R, Winer EP: Trastuzumab and Vinorelbine as first-line therapy for Her2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer: multicenter phase II trial with clinical outcomes, analysis of serum tumor markers as predictive factors, and cardiac surveillance algorithm. J Clin Oncol. 2003, 21: 2889-95. 10.1200/JCO.2003.02.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Winer EP, Burstein HJ: New combinations with herceptin in metastatic breast cancer. Oncology. 2001, 61 (Suppl 2): 50-7. 10.1159/000055402.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yarden Y, Baselga J, Miles D: Molecular approach to breast cancer treatment. Semin Oncol. 2004, 31: 6-13. 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2004.07.016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Esteva FJ: Monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, and vaccines in the treatment of breast cancer. Oncologist. 2004, 9 (Suppl 3): 4-9. 10.1634/theoncologist.9-suppl_3-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bianco AR: Targeting c-erbB2 and other receptors of the c-erbB family: rationale and clinical applications. J Chemother. 2004, 16 (Suppl 4): 52-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jahanzeb M, Mortimer JE, Yunus F, Irwin DH, Speyer J, Koletsky AJ, Klein P, Sabir T, Kronish L: Phase II trial of weekly Vinorelbine and Trastuzumab as first-line therapy in patients with Her2(+) metastatic breast cancer. Oncologist. 2002, 7: 410-7. 10.1634/theoncologist.7-5-410.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Montemurro F, Valabrega G, Aglietta M: Trastuzumab-based combination therapy for breast-cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2004, 5: 81-96. 10.1517/146565188.8.131.52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jahanzeb M: Trastuzumab-Based Combinations in Metastatic Breast Cancer: How to Make a Choice. Clinical Breast Cancer. 2003, 1: 28-38.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki Y, Tokuda Y, Saito Y, Ohta M, Tajima T: Combination of trastuzumab and vinorelbine in metastatic breast cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2003, 33: 514-7. 10.1093/jjco/hyg101.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burstein HJ, Kuter I, Campos SM, Gelman RS, Tribou L, Parker LM, Manola J, Younger J, Matulonis U, Bunnell CA, Partridge AH, Richardson PG, Clarke K, Shulman LN, Winer EP: Clinical activity of trastuzumab and vinorelbine in women with Her2-overexpressing breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004, 15: 2722-30.Google Scholar
- Marty M, Cognetti F, Maraninchi D, Snyder R, Mauriac L, Tibuana-Hulin M, Chan S, Grimes D, Anton A, Lluch A, Kennedy J, O'Byrne K, Conte P, Green M, Ward C, Mayne K, Extra JM: Efficacy and Safety of Trastuzumab Combined With Docetaxel in Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Administered as First-Line Treatment: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial by the M77001 Study group. J Clin Oncol. 2005, 23: 4265-74. 10.1200/JCO.2005.04.173.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leyland-Jones B, Gelmon K, Ayoub JP, Arnold A, Verma S, Dias R, Ghahramani P: Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of trastuzumab administered every three weeks in combination with paclitaxel. J Clin Oncol. 2003, 21: 3965-71. 10.1200/JCO.2003.12.109.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan EL, Meier P: Non parametric estimation for incomplete observations. J Am Stat Ass. 1958, 53: 457-481.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fountzilas G, Razis E, Tsavdaridis D, Karina M, Labropoulos S, Christodoulou C, Mavroudis D, Gogas H, Georgoulias V, Skarlos D: Continuation of trastuzumab beyond disease progression is feasible and safe in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a retrospective analysis of 80 cases by the Hellenic cooperative oncology group. Clin Breast Cancer. 2003, 4: 120-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tripathy D, Slamon DJ, Cobleigh M, Arnold A, Saleh M, Mortimer JE, Murphy M, Stewart SJ: Safety of treatment of metastatic breast cancer with trastuzumab beyond disease progression. J Clin Oncol. 2004, 22: 1063-70. 10.1200/JCO.2004.06.557.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gelmon KA, Mackey J, Verma S, Gertler SZ, Bangemann N, Kilmo P, Schneeweiss A, Bremer K, Soulieres D, Tonkin K, Bell R, Heinrich B, Grenier D, Dias R: Use of trastuzumab beyond disease progression: observations from a retrospective review of case histories. Clin Breast Cancer. 2004, 5: 52-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Osoba D: Health-related quality of life as a treatment endpoint in metastatic breast cancer. Can J Oncol. 1995, 5 (Suppl 1): 47-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Payne SA: A study of quality of life in cancer patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. Soc Sci Med. 1992, 35: 1505-9. 10.1016/0277-9536(92)90053-S.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eiermann W: trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of HER"-positive metastatic breast cancer: pivotal trial data. Ann Oncol. 2001, 12 (Suppl 1): 57-62. 10.1023/A:1011172125897.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ritter CA, Bianco R, Dugger T, Forbes J, Qu S, Rinehart C, King W, Arteaga CL: Mechanisms of resistance development against trastuzumab (Herceptin) in an in vivo breast cancer model. Int J Pharmacol Ther. 2004, 42: 642-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vidal L, Attard G, Kaye S, De Bono J: Reversing resistance to targeted therapy. J Chemother. 2004, 16 (Suppl 4): 7-12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/6/63/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.