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Table 4 Gallbladder-related toxicity and potential gallbladder-related toxicity reported with tyrosine kinase inhibitors other than motesanib

From: The effect of different dosing regimens of motesanib on the gallbladder: a randomized phase 1b study in patients with advanced solid tumors

Agent Molecular target(s) Study / Study type Adverse events reported
Cediranib VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3 Laurie et al. [21] – phase 1 study Acute cholecystitis
   Batchelor et al. [22] – phase 2 study Gallbladder obstruction, abdominal pain
Imatinib BCR-ABL, Kit, PDGFR-α, PDGFR-β Yeh et al. [23] – single-arm study Gallstones
   Breccia et al. [37] – case report Gallstones, gallbladder wall thickening, abdominal pain
   Grant et al. [24] – phase 1 study Cholecystitis
Sorafenib VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, Raf, PDGFR-β, Flt-3, Kit Sanda et al. [20] – case report Right upper abdominal pain, gallbladder edema, acute acalculous cholecystitis
   Nexavar European public assessment report [26] Cholecystitis, cholangitis
   Nexavar US prescribing information [25] Cholecystitis, cholangitis
Sunitinib VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFR-α, PDGFR-β, Flt-3, Kit Motzer et al. [17] – single-arm study Acute cholecystitis
   De Lima Lopes, Jr., et al. [18] – case report Acute emphysematous cholecystitis, right upper abdominal pain, gallbladder distension
   Gomez-Abuin et al. [19] – case report Acute acalculous cholecystitis, right upper abdominal pain, gallbladder wall thickening
  1. ALT = alkaline phosphatase; PDGFR = platelet-derived growth factor receptor; VEGFR = vascular endothelial growth factor receptor.