American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts & Figures 2012. 2012, Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 62-
Chen ZMM, Aragaki AK, Mouton C, Arendell L, Lopez AM, Bassford T, Chlebowski RT: Fracture risk increases after diagnosis of breast or other cancers in postmenopausal women: results from the Women's health initiative. Osteoporos Int. 2009, 20 (4): 527-536. 10.1007/s00198-008-0721-0.
Winters-Stone K, Torgrimson B, Horak F, Eisner A, Leo M, Nail L, Chui S, Luoh S-W: Identifying factors associated with falls in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a multi-disciplinary approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011, 92 (4): 646-652. 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.10.039.
Winters-Stone KM, Nail L, Bennett JA, Schwartz A: Bone health and falls: fracture risk in breast cancer survivors with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2009, 36 (3): 315-325. 10.1188/09.ONF.315-325.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Self-reported falls and fall-related injuries among persons aged > or =65 years--United States, 2006. MMWR. 2008, 57 (9): 225-229.
Chen Z, Maricic M, Bassford TL, et al: Fracture risk among breast cancer survivors: results from the Women's health initiative observational study. Arch Intern Med. 2005, 165 (5): 552-558. 10.1001/archinte.165.5.552.
Freedman RJ, Aziz N, Albanes D, et al: Weight and body composition changes during and after adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004, 89 (5): 2248-2253. 10.1210/jc.2003-031874.
Demark-Wahnefried W, Peterson BL, Winer EP, et al: Changes in weight, body composition, and factors influencing energy balance among premenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2001, 19 (9): 2381-2389.
Harvie MN, Campbell IT, Baildam A, Howell A: Energy balance in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004, 83 (3): 201-210. 10.1023/B:BREA.0000014037.48744.fa.
Cheney CL, Mahloch J, Freeny P: Computerized tomography assessment of women with weight changes associated with adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997, 66 (1): 141-146.
Kutynec CL, McCargar L, Barr SI, Hislop TG: Energy balance in women with breast cancer during adjuvant treatment. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999, 99 (10): 1222-1227. 10.1016/S0002-8223(99)00301-6.
Kuroi K, Shimozuma K: Neurotoxicity of taxanes: symptoms and quality of life assessment. Breast Cancer. 2004, 11 (1): 92-99. 10.1007/BF02968010.
Black FO, Johnson JT, Effron MZ, Burns DS, Wall C: Vestibular ototoxicity of prophylactic aminoglycoside antibiotics in head and neck cancer patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1982, 90 (3 Pt 1): 349-354.
Black FO, Myers EN, Schramm VL: Cisplatin vestibular ototoxicity: preliminary report. Laryngoscope. 1982, 92 (12): 1363-1368.
Orr R: Contribution of muscle weakness to postural instability in the elderly. A systematic review. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2010, 46 (2): 183-220.
Wolfson L, Judge J, Whipple R, King M: Strength is a major factor in balance, gait, and the occurence of falls. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995, 50 (Spec No): 64-67.
Inokuchi S, Matsusaka N, Hayashi T, Shindo H: Feasibility and effectiveness of a nurse-led community exercise programme for prevention of falls among frail elderly people: a multi-centre controlled trial. J Rehabil Med. 2007, 39 (6): 479-485. 10.2340/16501977-0080.
Agrawal Y, Carey JP, Della Santina CC, Schubert MC, Minor LB: Diabetes, vestibular dysfunction, and falls: analyses from the national health and nutrition examination survey. Otol Neurotol. 2010, 31 (9): 1445-1450. 10.097/MAO.0b013e3181f2f035.
Irwin ML, Crumley D, McTiernan A: Physical activity levels before and after a diagnosis of breast carcinoma: the health, eating, activity, and lifestyle (HEAL) study. Cancer. 2003, 97 (7): 1746-1757. 10.1002/cncr.11227.
Gillespie LD RM, Gillespie WJ, Lamb SE, Gates S, Cumming RG, Rowe BH: Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010, 15 (2): CD007146-
American Geriatric Society Panel on Prevention of Falls in Older Persons, British Geriatrics S: Summary of the updated American geriatrics society/British geriatrics society clinical practice guideline for prevention of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011, 59 (1): 148-157.
Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ, et al: Tai Chi and fall reductions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol Ser A: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005, 60 (2): 187-194. 10.1093/gerona/60.2.187.
Hauer K, Rost B, Rutschle K, et al: Exercise training for rehabilitation and secondary prevention of falls in geriatric patients with a history of injurious falls. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001, 49 (1): 10-20. 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49004.x.
Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner M, Norton RN, Buchner DM: Falls prevention over 2 years: a randomized controlled trial in women 80 years and older. Age Ageing. 1999, 28 (6): 513-518. 10.1093/ageing/28.6.513.
Pijnappelsm M, Reeves ND, Maganaris CN, van Dieën J: Tripping without falling; lower limb strength, a limitation for balance recovery and a target for training in the elderly. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology: official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology. 2008, 18 (2): 188-196.
Barnett A, Smith B, Lord SR, Williams M, Baumand A: Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: a randomised controlled trial. Age Ageing. 2003, 32 (4): 407-414. 10.1093/ageing/32.4.407.
Buchner DM, Cress ME, de Lateur BJ, et al: The effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, fall risk, and health services use in community-living older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997, 52 (4): M218-M224.
Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Tilyard MW, Buchner DM: Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. Br Med J. 1997, 315 (7115): 1065-1069. 10.1136/bmj.315.7115.1065.
Iwamoto J, Suzuki H, Tanaka K, et al: Preventative effect of exercise against falls in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2009, 20 (7): 1233-1240. 10.1007/s00198-008-0794-9.
Means KM, Rodell DE, O'Sullivan PS: Balance, mobility, and falls among community-dwelling elderly persons: effects of a rehabilitation exercise program. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005, 84 (4): 238-250. 10.1097/01.PHM.0000151944.22116.5A.
Robertson M, Gardner M, Devlin N, McGee R, Campell A: Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 2: Controlled trial in multiple centres. Br Med J. 2001, 322 (7288): 701-704. 10.1136/bmj.322.7288.701.
Rubenstein L, Josephson K, Trueblood P, et al: Effects of a group exercise program on strength, mobility, and falls among fall-prone elderly men. J Gerontl A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000, 55 (6): M317-M321. 10.1093/gerona/55.6.M317.
Harmer PA, Li F: Tai Chi and falls prevention in older people. Med Sport Sci. 2008, 52: 124-134.
Liu H, Frank A: Tai chi as a balance improvement exercise for older adults: a systematic review. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2010, 33 (3): 103-109.
Sherrington C, Whitney JC, Lord SR, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Close JC: Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008, 56 (12): 2234-2243. 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02014.x.
Twiss JJ, Waltman NL, Berg K, Ott CD, Gross GJ, Lindsey AM: An exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors with bone loss. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2009, 41 (1): 20-27. 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01247.x.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Falls among older adults: An overview. Available from URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/adultfalls/htm
Wolf S, Barnhart H, Kutner N, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T: Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996, 44 (5): 489-497.
Signorini D: Sample size for poisson regression. Biometrika. 1991, 78 (2): 446-450. 10.1093/biomet/78.2.446.
Hintze J: PASS 2008. 2008, Kaysville, Utah, USA: NCSS, LLC
Winters-Stone KM, Dobek J, Bennett JA, Nail LM, Leo MC, Schwartz A: The effect of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in older, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. J Cancer Surviv. 2012, 6 (2): 189-199. 10.1007/s11764-011-0210-x.
Wolf SL, Sattin RW, Kutner M, O'Grady M, Greenspan AI, Gregor RJ: Intense Tai Chi exercise training and fall occurrences in older, transitionally frail adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003, 51 (12): 1693-1701. 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51552.x.
Woo J, Hong A, Lau E, Lynn H: A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people. Age Ageing. 2007, 36 (3): 262-268. 10.1093/ageing/afm005.
Shaw JM, Snow CM: Weighted vest exercise improves indices of fall risk in older women. J Gerontol. 1998, 53: M53-M58.
Winters KM, Snow CM: Detraining reverses positive effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system in premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2000, 15: 2495-2503. 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.12.2495.
Schmitz KH, Courneya KS, Matthews C, et al: American college of sports medicine roundtable on exercise guidelines for cancer survivors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010, 42 (7): 1409-1426. 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e0c112.
Chodzko-Zajko WJ PD, Fiatarone Singh MA, Minson CT, Nigg CR, Salem GJ, Skinner JS: American college of sports medicine position stand: exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009, 41 (7): 1510-1530. 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c.
Li F, Harmer P, Mack KA, et al: Tai Chi: moving for better balance – development of a community-based falls prevention program. J Phys Act Health. 2008, 5 (3): 445-455.
Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ, McAuley E: Tai Chi: improving functional balance and predicting subsequent falls in older persons. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004, 36 (12): 2046-2052.
Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, et al: Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2012, 366 (6): 511-519. 10.1056/NEJMoa1107911.
Li F, Harmer P, Glasgow R, et al: Translation of an effective tai chi intervention into a community-based falls-prevention program. Am J Public Health. 2008, 98 (7): 1195-1198. 10.2105/AJPH.2007.120402.
American College of Sports Medicine e: ACSM's guildelines for exercise testing and prescription. 2006, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 7th
Brochu M, Savage P, Lee M, et al: Effects of resistance training on physical function in older disabled women with coronary heart disease. J Appl Physiol. 2002, 92 (2): 672-678. 10.1063/1.1481961.
Alexander NB, Gross MM, Medell JL, Hofmeyer MR: Effects of functional ability and training on chair-rise biomechanics in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001, 56 (9): M538-M547. 10.1093/gerona/56.9.M538.
Brown M, Sinacore DR, Ehsani AA, Binder EF, Holloszy JO, Kohrt WM: Low-intensity exercise as a modifier of physical frailty in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000, 81 (7): 960-965. 10.1053/apmr.2000.4425.
Barrett CJ, Smerdely P: A comparison of community-based resistance exercise and flexibility exercise for seniors. Aust J Physiother. 2002, 48 (3): 215-219.
Tinetti M, Williams C: Falls, injuries due to falls, and the risk of admission to a nursing home. N Engl J Med. 1997, 337 (18): 1279-1284. 10.1056/NEJM199710303371806.
Chan B, Marshall L, Winters K, Faulkner K, Schwartz A, Orwoll E: Incident falls and physical activity and physical performance among older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study. Am J Epidemiol. in press
Pollock ML, Carroll JF, Graves JE, et al: Injuries and adherence to walk/jog and resistance training programs in the elderly. Medicine Science Sports and Exercise. 1991, 23: 1194-2000.
Shaw CE, McCully KK, Posner JD: Injuries during the one repetition maximum assessment in the elderly. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1995, 15: 283-287. 10.1097/00008483-199507000-00005.
Schmitz KH, Ahmed RL, Hannan PJ, Yee D: Safety and efficacy of weight training in recent breast cancer survivors to alter body composition, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor axis proteins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005, 14 (7): 1672-1680. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0736.
Schmitz KH, Ahmed RL, Troxel A, et al: Weight lifting in women with breast-cancer–related lymphedema. N Engl J Med. 2009, 361 (7): 664-673. 10.1056/NEJMoa0810118.
Schmitz KH, Ahmed RL, Troxel AB, et al: Weight lifting for women at risk for breast cancer–related lymphedema. JAMA. 2010, 304 (24): 2699-2705. 10.1001/jama.2010.1837.
Katz E, Dugan N, Cohn J, Chu C, Smith R, Schmitz KH: Weight lifting in patients with lower-extremity lymphedema secondary to cancer: a pilot and feasibility study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010, 91 (7): 1070-1076. 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.03.021.
Vermeulen J, Neyens J, van Rossum E, Spreeuwenberg M, de Witte L: Predicting ADL disability in community-dwelling elderly people using physical frailty indicators: a systematic review. BMC Geriatrics. 2011, 11 (1): 33-10.1186/1471-2318-11-33.
Whitney SL, Marchetti GF, Schade AI: The relationship between falls history and computerized dynamic posturography in persons with balance and vestibular disorders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006, 87 (3): 402-10.1016/j.apmr.2005.11.002.
Tsang WH-CW, Christina WY: Effect of 4- and 8-wk intensive Tai Chi training on balance control in the elderly. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004, 36 (4): 648-657.
Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, et al: A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: Association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 1994, 49 (2): M85-M94. 10.1093/geronj/49.2.M85.
Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Pieper CF, et al: Lower extremity function and subsequent disability: consistency across studies, predictive models, and value of gait speed alone compared with the short physical performance battery. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000, 55 (4): M221-M231. 10.1093/gerona/55.4.M221.
Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Salive ME, Wallace RB: Lower-extremity function in persons over the age of 70 years as a predictor of subsequent disability. N Engl J Med. 1995, 332 (9): 556-561. 10.1056/NEJM199503023320902.
Ostir GV, Volpato S, Fried LP, Chaves P, Guralnik JM: Reliability and sensitivity to change assessed for a summary measure of lower body function: results from the Women's health and aging study. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002, 55 (9): 916-921. 10.1016/S0895-4356(02)00436-5.
Rikli RE, Jones CJ: Senior Fitness Test Manual. 2001, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Groll D, To T, Bombardier C, Wright J: The development of a comorbidity index with physical function as the outcome. J Clin Epidemiol. 2005, 58 (6): 595-602. 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2004.10.018.
Lachman ME, Howland J, Tennstedt S, Jette A, Assmann S, Peterson EW: Fear of falling and activity restriction: the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFE). J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1998, 53 (1): P43-P50.
Tukey J: Exploratory data analysis. 1977, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Long JSF J: Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variable Using Stata. 2006, College Station, TX: Stata Press, 2nd
Mackinnon DP: Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis (Mulitvariate Applications Series). 2008, New York: Erlbaum
Li F, Harmer P, McAuley E, et al: An evaluation of the effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical function among older persons: a randomized contolled trial. Ann Behav Med. 2001, 23 (2): 139-146. 10.1207/S15324796ABM2302_9.