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  1. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 functions as a carrier of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in circulation and a mediator of the growth suppression signal in cells. There are two reported...

    Authors: Tadashi Hanafusa, Toshiyuki Shinji, Hidenori Shiraha, Kazuhiro Nouso, Yoshiaki Iwasaki, Eichiro Yumoto, Toshiro Ono and Norio Koide
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2005 5:9
  2. Molecular markers for localized colon tumours and for prognosis following therapy are needed. Proteomics research is currently producing numerous biomarker studies with clinical potential. We investigate the p...

    Authors: Jakob Albrethsen, Rikke Bøgebo, Steen Gammeltoft, Jesper Olsen, Benny Winther and Hans Raskov
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2005 5:8
  3. Both Taxotere and Capecitabine have shown anti-cancer activity against various cancers including prostate cancer. In combination, Taxotere plus Capecitabine has demonstrated higher anti-cancer activity in adva...

    Authors: Yiwei Li, Maha Hussain, Sarah H Sarkar, James Eliason, Ran Li and Fazlul H Sarkar
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2005 5:7
  4. We have previously demonstrated that NF-Y and Sp1 interact with the human telomerase RNA (hTR) promoter and play a central role in its regulation. We have also shown that pRB activates the hTR promoter, but th...

    Authors: Jiangqin Zhao, Alan Bilsland, Katrina Jackson and W Nicol Keith
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2005 5:6
  5. TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) is an apoptosis inducing ligand with high specificity for malignant cell systems. Combined treatment modalities using TRAIL and cytotoxic drugs reve...

    Authors: Patrizia Marini, Angelika Schmid, Verena Jendrossek, Heidrun Faltin, Peter T Daniel, Wilfried Budach and Claus Belka
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2005 5:5
  6. Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influen...

    Authors: Tobias Engl, Jasmina Makarević, Borna Relja, Iyad Natsheh, Iris Müller, Wolf-Dietrich Beecken, Dietger Jonas and Roman A Blaheta
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2005 5:4
  7. Prostate cancer is a significant health problem among American men. Treatment strategies for androgen-independent cancer are currently not available. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Ap...

    Authors: Ahmed El-Zawahry, John McKillop and Christina Voelkel-Johnson
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2005 5:2
  8. Recently, several members of a vertebrate protein family containing a six trans-membrane (6TM) domain and involved in apoptosis and cancer (e.g. STEAP, STAMP1, TSAP6), have been identified in Golgi and cytopla...

    Authors: Luis Sanchez-Pulido, Ana M Rojas, Alfonso Valencia, Carlos Martinez-A and Miguel A Andrade
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:98
  9. Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. It is the second cancer cause of death in females and third in males. Production of prolactin has been reported with several tumours. How...

    Authors: Ahmad Reza Soroush, Hosein Mahmood zadeh, Mehrnush Moemeni, Behnam Shakiba and Sara Elmi
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:97
  10. Splenic metastases occur in rare cases with a few case reports of patients in the literature. Generally, splenic metastases mean late dissemination of a disease. Solitary splenic metastases from solid tumors a...

    Authors: Yang Seok Koh, Jung Chul Kim and Chol Kyoon Cho
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:96
  11. We describe a patient who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate for urinary obstructive symptoms and had histological findings of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with prostatic localization of chron...

    Authors: Riccardo Ballario, Paolo Beltrami, Stefano Cavalleri, Lorenzo Ruggera, Maria Grazia Zorzi and Walter Artibani
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:95
  12. Uncertainty regarding comorbid illness, and ability to tolerate aggressive therapy has led to minimal enrollment of elderly cancer patients into clinical trials and often substandard treatment. Increasingly, c...

    Authors: William H Hall, Ramanathan Ramachandran, Samir Narayan, Ashesh B Jani and Srinivasan Vijayakumar
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:94
  13. Previous research has indicated that at various organ sites there is a subset of adenocarcinomas that is regulated by beta-adrenergic and arachidonic acid-mediated signal transduction pathways. We wished to de...

    Authors: Howard K Plummer III, Qiang Yu, Yavuz Cakir and Hildegard M Schuller
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:93
  14. Colon adenocarcinomas are refractory to a number of widely used anticancer agents. Multifactorial mechanisms have been implicated in this intrinsically resistant phenotype, including deregulation of cell death...

    Authors: Raffaella Ravizza, Marzia B Gariboldi, Laura Passarelli and Elena Monti
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:92
  15. Almost one-third of all penile metastases are detected at the same time as a primary tumor, whereas the remaining two-thirds are detected a mean of 18 months after the discovery of the primary tumor. Cutaneous...

    Authors: Giorgio Pomara, Ilaria Pastina, Maurizio Simone, Paolo Casale, Gabriella Marchetti and Francesco Francesca
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:90
  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy for which chronic hepatitis B infection has been defined as the most common etiologic factor. The most frequent metastatic sites are the lung, bone, lymphatics, ...

    Authors: Şahin Çoban, Osman Yüksel, Seyfettin Köklü, Koray Ceyhan, Meltem Baykara and Abdulkadir Dökmeci
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:89
  17. In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also t...

    Authors: HC Ciria, MS Quevedo, LB Cabrales, RP Bruzón, MF Salas, OG Pena, TR González, DS López and JM Flores
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:87
  18. Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG)-immunotherapy has a well-documented and successful clinical history in the treatment of bladder cancer. However, regularly observed side effects, a certain degree of nonresponder...

    Authors: Christian Sänger, Andreas Busche, Gabriele Bentien, Ralf Spallek, Fatima Jonas, Andreas Böhle, Mahavir Singh and Sven Brandau
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:86
  19. BAG-1 is a multifunctional co-chaperone of heat shock proteins (Hsc70/Hsp70) that is expressed in most cells. It interacts with Bcl-2 and Raf indicating that it might connect protein folding with other signali...

    Authors: Rudolf Götz, Boris W Kramer, Guadalupe Camarero and Ulf R Rapp
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:85
  20. Smac/Diablo is a recently identified protein that is released from mitochondria after apoptotic stimuli. It binds IAPs, allowing caspase activation and cell death. In view of its activity it might participate ...

    Authors: Magali Espinosa, David Cantu, Carlos M Lopez, Jaime G De la Garza, Vilma A Maldonado and Jorge Melendez-Zajgla
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:84
  21. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers downstream signaling pathways that regulate many cellular processes involved in tumour survival and growth. Gefitinib ('Iressa') is an orally ...

    Authors: Louise A Knight, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Pauline Whitehouse, Stuart Mercer, Sanjay Sharma, Sharon Glaysher, Penny Johnson and Ian A Cree
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:83
  22. The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compar...

    Authors: Wonshik Han, Seok Won Kim, In Ae Park, Daehee Kang, Sung-Won Kim, Yeo-Kyu Youn, Seung Keun Oh, Kuk Jin Choe and Dong-Young Noh
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:82
  23. Electroporation is currently receiving much attention as a way to increase drug and DNA delivery. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of electrogene therapy using a range of therapeutic genes for the t...

    Authors: Maja Cemazar, Ian Wilson, Gabi U Dachs, Gillian M Tozer and Gregor Sersa
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:81
  24. Transcription factors are frequently involved in the process of cellular transformation, and many malignancies are characterized by a distinct genetic event affecting a specific transcription factor. This prob...

    Authors: Anna Lagergren, Christina Manetopoulos, Håkan Axelson and Mikael Sigvardsson
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:80
  25. G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel 1 (GIRK1) is thought to play a role in cell proliferation in cancer, and GIRK1 gene expression level may define a more aggressive phenotype. We detected GIRK1 ex...

    Authors: Iwao Takanami, Yoshimasa Inoue and Masatoshi Gika
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:79
  26. Tumor-associated antigens recognized by humoral effectors of the immune system are a very attractive target for human cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to molecul...

    Authors: Emiliano Pavoni, Paola Vaccaro, Andrea Pucci, Giorgia Monteriù, Elisa Beghetto, Stefano Barca, Maria Luisa Dupuis, Adolfo De Pasquale Ceratti, Antonio Lugini, Maurizio Cianfriglia, Enrico Cortesi, Franco Felici and Olga Minenkova
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:78
  27. Several reports indicated that non-thermal electromagnetic radiation such as from mobile phones and base stations may promote cancer. Therefore, it was investigated experimentally, whether 900 MHz electromagne...

    Authors: Angela M Sommer, Joachim Streckert, Andreas K Bitz, Volkert W Hansen and Alexander Lerchl
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:77
  28. Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for colon cancer radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to allow for repeated injections. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) being the reference antigen for immunotargeting of these...

    Authors: Véronique Garambois, Fabienne Glaussel, Elodie Foulquier, Marc Ychou, Martine Pugnière, Robin X Luo, Binyam Bezabeh and André Pèlegrin
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:75
  29. The management of unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has previously been difficult as they are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation. The development of imatinib ...

    Authors: Brett Hughes, Desmond Yip, David Goldstein, Paul Waring, Victoria Beshay and Guan Chong
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:74
  30. Invasion is an important early step of cancer metastasis that is not well understood. Developing therapeutics to limit metastasis requires the identification and validation of candidate proteins necessary for ...

    Authors: Kevin E Sloan, Brenda K Eustace, Jean K Stewart, Carol Zehetmeier, Claudia Torella, Marina Simeone, Jennifer E Roy, Christine Unger, David N Louis, Leodevico L Ilag and Daniel G Jay
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:73
  31. Precise classification of cancer types is critically important for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classifica...

    Authors: YeeLeng Yap, XueWu Zhang, MT Ling, XiangHong Wang, YC Wong and Antoine Danchin
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:72
  32. This practice guideline was developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in Ontario on the preferred standard radiotherapy fractionation schedule for the treatment of painful bone metastases.

    Authors: Jackson Sai-Yiu Wu, Rebecca KS Wong, Nancy S Lloyd, Mary Johnston, Andrea Bezjak and Timothy Whelan
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:71
  33. SV40 DNA replication system is a very useful tool to understand the mechanism of replication, which is a tightly regulated process. Many environmental and cellular factors can induce cell cycle arrest or apopt...

    Authors: Yahong Jiang, Eun-Young Ahn, Seung Hee Ryu, Dong-Kyoo Kim, Jang-Su Park, Hyun Joo Yoon, Song You, Burm-Jong Lee, Dong Seok Lee and Jee H Jung
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:70
  34. Although modest improvements in the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be achieved with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT), its value is disputed in the geriatric setting. In this ...

    Authors: José Rodrigues Pereira, Sandro J Martins, Sueli M Nikaedo and Flora K Ikari
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:69
  35. Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) patients show a characteristic pattern of antibody responses to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which is regularly associated with this tumor. However, no EBV-speci...

    Authors: Lilia Fliss-Jaber, Radhia Houissa-Kastally, Kamel Bouzouita, Naceur Khediri and Ridha Khelifa
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:68
  36. Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive malignancy with an increasing incidence. Its virulence, in terms of symptoms and mortality, justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. A clinical practice gui...

    Authors: Richard A Malthaner, Rebecca KS Wong, R Bryan Rumble and Lisa Zuraw
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:67
  37. Lung cancer causes approximately one million deaths each year worldwide and protein p53 has been shown to be involved in the intricate processes regulating response to radiation and/or chemotherapeutic treatme...

    Authors: Michael Bergqvist, Daniel Brattström, Anders Larsson, Patrik Hesselius, Ola Brodin and Gunnar Wagenius
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:66
  38. Astrocytoma is a common aggressive intracranial tumor and presents a formidable challenge in the clinic. Association of altered DNA methylation patterns of the promoter CpG islands with the expression profile ...

    Authors: Jian Yu, Hongyu Zhang, Jun Gu, Song Lin, Junhua Li, Wei Lu, Yifei Wang and Jingde Zhu
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:65
  39. The envelope (Env) protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) can transform cells in culture and is likely to be the main factor responsible for lung cancer induction by JSRV in animals. A recent report ind...

    Authors: A Dusty Miller, Neal S Van Hoeven and Shan-Lu Liu
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:64
  40. Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in t...

    Authors: Marilena Celano, Maria Grazia Calvagno, Stefania Bulotta, Donatella Paolino, Franco Arturi, Domenicoantonio Rotiroti, Sebastiano Filetti, Massimo Fresta and Diego Russo
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:63
  41. Mutations of the BRAF gene are the most common genetic alteration in melanoma. Moreover, BRAF mutations are already present in benign nevi. Being overexpressed and mutated, B-Raf is a potential target for the ...

    Authors: Joachim Fensterle, Jürgen C Becker, Tamara Potapenko, Veronika Heimbach, Claudia S Vetter, Eva B Bröcker and Ulf R Rapp
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:62
  42. Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. A multitude of mutations have been described and are found to be scattered throughout these two large genes. We describe analysis of

    Authors: Ioulia Belogianni, Angela Apessos, Markos Mihalatos, Evangelia Razi, Stefanos Labropoulos, Andreas Petounis, Vasiliki Gaki, Antonios Keramopoulos, Nikos Pandis, Kyriacos Kyriacou, Andreas Hadjisavvas, Paris Kosmidis, Drakoulis Yannoukakos and Georgios Nasioulas
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:61
  43. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the HER2 receptor is currently being used in breast and other tumor types. Early studies have shown that a variable proportion of cervical carcinoma tumors ...

    Authors: Alma Chavez-Blanco, Victor Perez-Sanchez, Aurora Gonzalez-Fierro, Teresa Vela-Chavez, Myrna Candelaria, Lucely Cetina, Silvia Vidal and Alfonso Dueñas-Gonzalez
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:59
  44. Cervical carcinomas are second most frequent type of women cancer. Success in diagnostics of this disease is due to the use of Pap-test (cytological smear analysis). However Pap-test gives significant portion ...

    Authors: Galina Volgareva, Larisa Zavalishina, Yulia Andreeva, Georgy Frank, Ella Krutikova, Darya Golovina, Alexander Bliev, Dimitry Spitkovsky, Valeriya Ermilova and Fjodor Kisseljov
    Citation: BMC Cancer 2004 4:58

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