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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Preoperative serum CA19-9 should be routinely measured in the colorectal patients with preoperative normal serum CEA: a multicenter retrospective cohort study

Variable Total (n = 5048) Preoperative CA19-9 group P value
Normal CA19-9 (n = 4310) Elevated CA19-9 (n = 738)
Hospital, n (%)      < 0.001
 YNCH 2170 (43.0) 1843 (42.8) 327 (44.3)  
 KYU1 1111 (22.0) 986 (22.9) 125 (16.9)  
 PUCH 604 (12.0) 541 (12.6) 63 (8.5)  
 SYSU6 683 (13.5) 545 (12.6) 138 (18.7)  
 CQU1 480 (9.5) 395 (9.2) 85 (11.5)  
Male, n (%) 3029 (60.0) 2629 (61.0) 400 (54.2) 0.001
Agea 61.0 [51.0, 68.0] 61.0 [51.0, 68.0] 62.0 [51.0, 69.0] 0.114
Preoperative CEA, ng/ml a 3.8 [2.1, 9.4] 3.5 [2.0, 7.3] 10.6 [4.3, 28.1]  < 0.001
Preoperative CEA group, n (%)      < 0.001
 ≥ 5 ng/ml 2043 (40.5) 1519 (35.2) 524 (71.0)  
 < 5 ng/ml 3005 (59.5) 2791 (64.8) 214 (29.0)  
Preoperative CA19-9, U/ml a 11.9 [7.3, 23.4] 11.4 [6.4, 16.8] 69.7 [48.3, 143.5]  < 0.001
Primary site, n (%)      < 0.001
 Colon 2659 (52.7) 2216 (51.4) 443 (60.0)  
 Rectum 2389 (47.3) 2094 (48.6) 295 (40.0)  
Surgical approach, n (%)     0.079
 Laparoscopic resection 3010 (59.6) 2596 (60.2) 414 (56.1)  
 Open resection 2035 (40.3) 1711 (39.7) 324 (43.9)  
 Unknown 3 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 0 (0.0)  
AJCC 8th ed. Stage, n (%)     
 II 2724 (54.0) 2403 (55.8) 321 (43.5)  < 0.001
 III 2324 (46.0) 1907 (44.2) 417 (56.5)  
Lymph node yield, n (%)     0.216
 ≥ 12 3883 (76.9) 3305 (76.7) 578 (78.3)  
 < 12 1163 (23.0) 1004 (23.3) 159 (21.5)  
 Unknown 2 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 1 (0.1)  
Tumor differentiation, n (%)     0.002
 Well-moderate 3533 (70.0) 3052 (70.8) 481 (65.2)  
 Poor-undifferentiated 1040 (20.6) 853 (19.8) 187 (25.3)  
 Unknown 475 (9.4) 405 (9.4) 70 (9.5)  
Lymphovascular / Perineural invasion, n (%)     0.020
 Yes 1168 (23.1) 969 (22.5) 199 (27.0)  
 No 3759 (74.5) 3240 (75.2) 519 (70.3)  
 Unknown 121 (2.4) 101 (2.3) 20 (2.7)  
MSI, n (%)     0.272
 Yes 886 (17.6) 751 (17.4) 135 (18.3)  
 No 2354 (46.6) 2030 (47.1) 324 (43.9)  
 Unknown 1808 (35.8) 1529 (35.5) 279 (37.8)  
Adjuvant chemotherapy, n (%)     0.261
 Yes 3576 (70.8) 3035 (70.4) 541 (73.3)  
 No 1471 (29.1) 1274 (29.6) 197 (26.7)  
 Unknown 1 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Mucinous (colloid) type, n (%)      < 0.001
 Yes 395 (7.8) 303 (7.0) 92 (12.5)  
 No 4648 (92.1) 4002 (92.9) 646 (87.5)  
 Unknown 475 (9.4) 405 (9.4) 70 (9.5)  
  1. Note: a Data is median [IQR]
  2. CA 19–9 carbohydrate antigen 19–9, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, MSI microsatellite instability, CQU1 the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, KMU1 the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, PUCH Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, SYSU6 the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, YNCH Yunnan Cancer Hospital