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Table 3 Associations between candidate correlating factors and percent change in CA125 levels among premenopausal women (N = 1157) by univariable and multivariable linear regressions

From: Factors associated with serum CA125 level in women without ovarian cancer in the United States: a population-based study

Variables Univariable linear regressionsa Multivariable linear regressionsb
Effect estimate CA125 change P value Effect estimate Standard error CA125 change P value
Smoking
 Currentd −0.124 −11.66% 0.047 −0.287 0.093 −24.95% 0.008
 Former 0.065 6.72% 0.330 0.014 0.194 1.41% 0.943
 None ref       
EtOH
  > 2 drinks/day −0.049 −4.78% 0.653     
 1–2 drinks/day 0.002 0.20% 0.972     
 None ref       
Caffeine −0.0001 −0.01% 0.404     
Age of menarche
  > 12 0.039 3.98% 0.479     
  ≤ 12 ref       
Breastfeedc 0.093 9.75% 0.078 0.110 0.121 11.63% 0.378
CHC use −0.155 −14.36% 0.218 −0.108 0.108 −10.24% 0.337
OCP duration
 10+ years −0.111 −10.51% 0.310     
 5–10 years 0.057 5.87% 0.502     
 2–5 years 0.113 11.96% 0.278     
  < 2 years ref       
CRP 0.061 6.29% 0.138 0.041 0.078 4.19% 0.607
Ferritin −0.0003 − 0.03% 0.453     
Osteoporosis −0.373 −31.13% 0.049     
Osteoarthritis 0.312 36.62% 0.067     
Salpingectomy −0.121 −11.40% 0.092 0.132 0.194 14.11% 0.506
Endometriosis 0.234 26.36% 0.115 0.057 0.271 5.87% 0.837
Fibroids 0.153 16.53% 0.184 −0.130 0.171 −12.19% 0.460
CAD −0.689 −49.79% 0.001     
HLD −0.037 −3.63% 0.700     
Non-ovarian cancerd 0.216 24.11% 0.106 0.341 0.156 40.64% 0.045
  1. EtOH Alcohol, CHC Current hormonal contraception, OCP Oral contraceptive pill, CRP C reactive protein, CAD Coronary artery disease, HLD Hyperlipidemia
  2. a All univariable regressions were adjusted for baseline variables including age, race/ethnicity, BMI, and parity
  3. b Multivariable regressions included the baseline variables (age, race/ethnicity, BMI, parity) and eligible variables from univariable analyses with cut-off p value < 0.25
  4. c For the “Breastfeed” variable, the reference for parity is one instead of none
  5. d These variables demonstrated significant associations with CA125 levels in the multivariable linear regression model