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Table 2 The association between end-of-life healthcare expenditures and economic status in cancer patients

From: Disparities in healthcare expenditures according to economic status in cancer patients undergoing end-of-life care

Variables Healthcare expenditures
Total 12 ~ 4 Months 3 Months ~ Death
RR 95% CI P-value RR 95% CI P-value RR 95% CI P-value
Economic status
 Low 1.019 0.954 1.090 0.5700 0.987 0.906 1.076 0.7657 1.070 0.985 1.162 0.1097
 Mid 1.000 1.000 1.000
 High 1.095 1.044 1.149 0.0002 1.098 1.027 1.174 0.0059 1.123 1.051 1.199 0.0006
Sex
 Male 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Female 0.953 0.910 0.998 0.0386 0.954 0.899 1.013 0.1219 0.960 0.899 1.025 0.2257
Age (years)
  ~ 69 1.452 1.321 1.596 <.0001 1.849 1.617 2.115 <.0001 1.214 1.072 1.375 0.0023
 70 ~ 74 1.318 1.245 1.395 <.0001 1.545 1.433 1.665 <.0001 1.174 1.089 1.266 <.0001
 75 ~ 79 1.166 1.104 1.232 <.0001 1.260 1.172 1.356 <.0001 1.067 0.988 1.152 0.0965
 80~ 1.000 1.000 1.000
Type of insurance coveragea
 NHI (self-employed) 1.030 0.981 1.081 0.2306 1.069 1.000 1.143 0.0509 1.016 0.956 1.079 0.6171
 NHI (employees) 1.000 1.000 1.000
Types of cancer which diagnosed
 Gastric cancer 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Colorectal cancer 0.952 0.897 1.011 0.1060 1.058 0.981 1.142 0.1450 0.919 0.844 1.001 0.0536
 Hepatocellular carcinoma 1.027 0.964 1.094 0.4110 1.151 1.060 1.250 0.0008 1.004 0.916 1.101 0.9293
 Lung cancer 1.073 1.012 1.139 0.0190 1.273 1.178 1.376 <.0001 0.978 0.903 1.059 0.5827
Survival time (from first diagnosis)
 1y ~ 2y 1.000 1.000 1.000
 2y ~ 3y 1.006 0.953 1.062 0.8351 1.099 0.968 1.249 0.1456 0.832 0.732 0.944 0.0045
 3y ~ 4y 0.966 0.905 1.030 0.2858 1.111 0.977 1.262 0.1078 0.828 0.732 0.937 0.0028
 4y ~ 5y 1.042 0.967 1.123 0.2783 0.970 0.851 1.107 0.6536 0.838 0.730 0.961 0.0118
 5y+ 1.108 1.004 1.224 0.0422 1.050 0.912 1.209 0.4970 0.907 0.782 1.053 0.1999
Charlson Comorbidity Index
  ~ 2 1.000 1.000 1.000
 3 ~ 5 1.128 1.036 1.229 0.0058 1.013 0.910 1.128 0.8165 1.192 1.062 1.338 0.0028
 6~ 1.373 1.275 1.478 <.0001 1.480 1.350 1.622 <.0001 1.276 1.151 1.414 <.0001
Residing area
 Capital area 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Metropolitan 1.148 1.092 1.207 <.0001 1.159 1.087 1.235 <.0001 1.167 1.089 1.250 <.0001
 Others 0.989 0.936 1.045 0.6889 1.011 0.935 1.093 0.7882 1.009 0.937 1.087 0.8131
Types of main treatment institution
 General hospital 4.415 3.659 5.328 <.0001 3.672 3.107 4.340 <.0001 4.123 3.262 5.211 <.0001
 Hospital 2.372 1.952 2.882 <.0001 1.861 1.533 2.261 <.0001 2.278 1.788 2.901 <.0001
 Long-term care hospital 2.092 1.722 2.542 <.0001 1.694 1.400 2.048 <.0001 1.740 1.362 2.222 <.0001
 Clinic 1.000 1.000 1.000
LOS (per day) 1.010 1.009 1.010 <.0001 1.018 1.017 1.018 <.0001 1.031 1.030 1.032 <.0001
Timing at death (per year) 1.009 0.998 1.021 0.1100 1.022 1.006 1.038 0.0083 1.007 0.992 1.022 0.3872
  1. aKRW Korean Won, NHI National Health Insurance