From: Exercise-based dysphagia rehabilitation for adults with oesophageal cancer: a systematic review
Exercises with Rehabilitative Purpose
Other Exercises and/or Compensatory Strategies
Mode, Frequency, Intensity, Duration Dosage of Intervention
Timing of dysphagia rehabilitation in relation to start of cancer treatment
Duration of rehabilitation (Mean +/−Std dev)
Okumura et al., 2016 
Pursed lip breathing, Tongue exercises, Shaker “head lift” exercises.
Cervical range of motion exercise Shoulder stretch Jaw opening Respiratory therapy
Compensatory strategies: Modified food and fluids.
SLT & nurses in the surgical ward delivered initial verbal & written instruction.
See Additional file 1 for instructions. Exercises × 5 a day at home and upon admission to the hospital, up until the day before surgery.
Unclear if patient-led thereafter.
Prehab: Approximately 23+/− 9.2 days preoperatively
Rehab: from the time oral intake was resumed after confirming the absence of anastomotic leakage post-surgery.
Prehab: 23+/−9.2 Days pre-surgery.
Rehab: 26+/− 15 days post-surgery.
Tsubosa et al., 2005 
Long lasting change may have also potentially occurred from the super-supraglottic swallow.
Oral care, Neck and shoulder exercises Oral exercises, Thermal tactile stimulation,
Super-supraglottic swallow, Effortful breath hold.
Compensatory strategies: Multiple swallows, chin down, Modified food and fluids.
Article states ‘Intensively’ however no definition or information provided.
See Additional file 1 for information on exercises.
Post-operative- unknown precisely when.
9.7 +/− 6.9 days post-surgery.
5/9 participants required more than 1 round of rehabilitation.
Takatsu et al., 2020 
Indirect training: Tongue exercises
Training while eating jelly:
Position adjustment- chin down
Effortful swallows, supraglottic swallow, adjusted bolus size supervised.
Food and fluid intake increased based on patient progress.
No detail provided on duration, frequency or intensity of indirect or direct training.
Modified water swallow test (MWST) completed by SLT after routine CT on POD 5 or 6. Patients with intermediate or high aspiration risk based on MWST provided with indirect and, if possible, direct rehabilitation.