|Authors, year||Exercises with Rehabilitative Purpose||Other Exercises and/or Compensatory Strategies||Mode, Frequency, Intensity, Duration Dosage of Intervention||Timing of dysphagia rehabilitation in relation to start of cancer treatment||Duration of rehabilitation (Mean +/−Std dev)|
|Okumura et al., 2016 ||Pursed lip breathing, Tongue exercises, Shaker “head lift” exercises.||
Cervical range of motion exercise
Compensatory strategies: Modified food and fluids.
SLT & nurses in the surgical ward delivered initial verbal & written instruction.|
See Additional file 1 for instructions. Exercises × 5 a day at home and upon admission to the hospital, up until the day before surgery.
Unclear if patient-led thereafter.
Prehab: Approximately 23+/− 9.2 days preoperatively|
Rehab: from the time oral intake was resumed after confirming the absence of anastomotic leakage post-surgery.
Prehab: 23+/−9.2 Days pre-surgery.|
Rehab: 26+/− 15 days post-surgery.
|Tsubosa et al., 2005 ||
Long lasting change may have also potentially occurred from the super-supraglottic swallow.
Neck and shoulder exercises
Thermal tactile stimulation,|
Super-supraglottic swallow, Effortful breath hold.
Compensatory strategies: Multiple swallows, chin down, Modified food and fluids.
Article states ‘Intensively’ however no definition or information provided.|
See Additional file 1 for information on exercises.
|Post-operative- unknown precisely when.||
9.7 +/− 6.9 days post-surgery.|
5/9 participants required more than 1 round of rehabilitation.
|Takatsu et al., 2020 ||
Indirect training: Tongue exercises|
Training while eating jelly:
Position adjustment- chin down
Effortful swallows, supraglottic swallow, adjusted bolus size supervised.
Food and fluid intake increased based on patient progress.
|No detail provided on duration, frequency or intensity of indirect or direct training.||Modified water swallow test (MWST) completed by SLT after routine CT on POD 5 or 6. Patients with intermediate or high aspiration risk based on MWST provided with indirect and, if possible, direct rehabilitation.||Not provided|