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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses for local recurrence and distant metastasis

From: Optimal surgical treatment for paratesticular leiomyosarcoma: retrospective analysis of 217 reported cases

Characteristics Local recurrence Distant metastasis
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Hazard ratio p-value Hazard ratio p-value Hazard ratio p-value Hazard ratio p-value
Age (years) 1.04 (1.01-1.07) 0.007 1.09 (1.01-1.19) 0.046 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 0.647   
Laterality         
 Left Reference     Reference    
 Right 1.12 (0.46-2.70) 0.810    0.61 (0.27-1.40) 0.242   
Tumor size (cm) 0.98 (0.88-1.09) 0.703    1.05 (1.01-1.10) 0.024   
Tumor depth         
 Cutaneous Reference     Reference   Reference  
 Subcutaneous 1.19 (0.41-3.47) 0.747    3.30 (1.02-10.68) 0.047 4.32 (1.02-18.22) 0.047
Treatment         
 Simple tumorectomy Reference     Reference    
 With orchiectomy 0.49 (0.22-1.07) 0.074    1.43 (0.70-2.94) 0.330   
Adjuvant radiation         
 No Reference     Reference    
 Yes 1.58 (0.62-3.92) 0.346    1.32 (0.64-2.70) 0.455   
Adjuvant chemotherapy         
 No Reference     Reference    
 Yes 0.67 (0.09-4.97) 0.695    1.60 (0.57-4.51) 0.373   
Microscopic margin         
 Negative Reference   Reference   Reference    
 Positive 11.14 (2.47-50.20) 0.002 9.84 (2.06-46.93) 0.004 5.96 (1.14-31.05) 0.034   
Tumor grade         
 Grade 1 Reference     Reference    
 Grade 2 1.73 (0.52-5.72) 0.369    7.55 (1.66-35.52) 0.010 7.06 (1.50-33.19) 0.013
 Grade 3 2.60 (0.91-7.40) 0.073    21.18 (4.97-90.39) <0.001 22.22 (5.18-95.26) <0.001