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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of men in NDR diagnosed with prostate cancer and/or used GnRH between 2006 and 2016 and their matched comparison

From: Exploring the association between use of gonadotropin releasing hormones agonists and prostate cancer diagnosis per se and diabetes control in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide, population-based cohort study

  PCa + GnRH exposure cohort GnRH exposure cohort
PCa men (N = 5714) No PCa men (N = 28,445) PCa using GnRH men (N = 692) PCa without using GnRH men (N = 3460)
Patients characteristics
Age (year), No. (%)
   < 60 233 (4.1) 1071 (3.8) 8 (1.2) 60 (1.7)
  60–69 1886 (33.0) 8034 (28.2) 101 (14.6) 805 (23.3)
  70–79 2608 (45.6) 12,984 (45.6) 304 (43.9) 1730 (50.0)
  80+ 987 (17.3) 6356 (22.3) 279 (40.3) 865 (25.0)
Education level, No. (%)
  Low 2340 (41.0) 12,231 (43.0) 308 (44.5) 1333 (38.5)
  Middle 2755 (48.2) 13,172 (46.3) 297 (42.9) 1678 (48.5)
  High 570 (10.0) 2686 (9.4) 82 (11.8) 432 (12.5)
  Missing 49 (0.9) 356 (1.3) 5 (0.7) 17 (0.5)
Civil status, No. (%)
  Married 3708 (64.9) 17,582 (61.8) 444 (64.2) 2248 (65.0)
  Not married (+Divorced/Widower/missing) 2006 (35.1) 10,863 (38.2) 248 (35.8) 1212 (35.0)
CCI, No. (%)
  0 2413 (42.2) 10,319 (36.3) 197 (28.5) 942 (27.2)
  1 1348 (23.6) 6494 (22.8) 174 (25.1) 1014 (29.3)
  2 765 (13.4) 4246 (14.9) 109 (15.8) 538 (15.5)
  3+ 1188 (20.8) 7386 (26.0) 212 (30.6) 966 (27.9)
Smoking, No. (%)
  No 4581 (80.2) 22,273 (78.3) 524 (75.7) 2683 (77.5)
  Yes 553 (9.7) 2912 (10.2) 51 (7.4) 267 (7.7)
  Missing 580 (10.2) 3260 (11.5) 117 (16.9) 510 (14.7)
Times of at least 60 min physical activity in 7 days, No. (%)
  Daily 573 (10.0) 3452 (12.1) 98 (14.2) 380 (11.0)
  3–5 times a week 500 (8.8) 2486 (8.7) 69 (10.0) 268 (7.7)
  1–2 times a week 902 (15.8) 4261 (15.0) 96 (13.9) 503 (14.5)
  Less than once a week 1016 (17.8) 4786 (16.8) 104 (15.0) 629 (18.2)
  Never 1531 (26.8) 6919 (24.3) 140 (20.2) 784 (22.7)
  Missing 1192 (20.9) 6541 (23.0) 185 (26.7) 896 (25.9)
BMI (kg/m2), No. (%)
   < 25 969 (17.0) 4668 (16.4) 111 (16.0) 610 (17.6)
  25–29 2509 (43.9) 11,845 (41.6) 291 (42.1) 1507 (43.6)
  30–34 1342 (23.5) 6677 (23.5) 150 (21.7) 731 (21.1)
  35–39 353 (6.2) 1961 (6.9) 39 (5.6) 187 (5.4)
  40+ 91 (1.6) 612 (2.2) 15 (2.2) 52 (1.5)
  Missing 450 (7.9) 2682 (9.4) 86 (12.4) 373 (10.8)
Number of visits, No. (%)
  3–9 3794 (66.4) 18,879 (66.4) 504 (72.8) 2520 (72.8)
  10–19 1520 (26.6) 7578 (26.6) 151 (21.8) 755 (21.8)
  20–29 315 (5.5) 1567 (5.5) 29 (4.2) 145 (4.2)
  30+ 85 (1.5) 421 (1.5) 8 (1.2) 40 (1.2)
T2DM status
Duration of T2DM (Years), No. (%)
   < 10 2751 (48.1) 12,755 (44.8) 320 (46.2) 1703 (49.2)
  10–19 1939 (33.9) 10,149 (35.7) 222 (32.1) 1139 (32.9)
  20–29 530 (9.3) 3123 (11.0) 78 (11.3) 310 (9.0)
  30+ 158 (2.8) 921 (3.2) 23 (3.3) 90 (2.6)
  Missing 336 (5.9) 1497 (5.3) 49 (7.1) 218 (6.3)
HbA1c (mmol/mol), No. (%)
   < 40 330 (5.8) 1484 (5.2) 63 (9.1) 221 (6.4)
  40–57 3673 (64.3) 16,834 (59.2) 434 (62.7) 2181 (63.0)
  58–69 1093 (19.1) 6045 (21.3) 119 (17.2) 642 (18.6)
  70–79 324 (5.7) 2122 (7.5) 37 (5.3) 187 (5.4)
  80–89 131 (2.3) 929 (3.3) 14 (2.0) 98 (2.8)
  90+ 87 (1.5) 612 (2.2) 12 (1.7) 61 (1.8)
  Missing 76 (1.3) 419 (1.5) 13 (1.9) 70 (2.0)
Primary treatment of T2DM, No. (%)
  Insulin 3420 (59.9) 10,246 (36.0) 237 (34.2) 1080 (31.2)
  Oral Hypoglycaemics 426 (7.5) 2330 (8.2) 46 (6.6) 276 (8.0)
  Diet controlled 1868 (32.7) 15,869 (55.8) 409 (59.1) 2104 (60.8)
PCa status
PCa diagnosis, No. (%)
  No PCa 28,445 (100.0)
  PCa 5714 (100.0) 692 (100.0) 3460 (100.0)
Using GnRH, No. (%)
  No PCa 28,445 (100.0)
  No 4274 (74.8) 3460 (100.0)
  Yes 1400 (25.2) 692 (100.0)
PCa risk category, No. (%)
  No PCa 28,445 (100.0)   
  Low risk 1122 (19.8) 145 (21.0) 1437 (41.5)
  Intermediate risk 1838 (32.2) 229 (33.1) 1272 (36.8)
  High risk 1531 (26.8) 232 (33.5) 533 (15.4)
  Regional metastasises 389 (6.8) 42 (6.1) 56 (1.6)
  Distance metastasises 650 (11.4) 32 (4.6) 39 (1.1)
  Missing data 184 (3.2) 12 (1.7) 123 (3.6)
  1. PCa denotes Prostate Cancer; T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; BMI: body mass index; CCI: Charlson Comorbidity Index