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Table 3 Hazard ratios (95% confident intervals) of esophageal cancer according to quintiles of energy-adjusted dietary intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine- stratified analysis by alcohol consumption

From: Association of dietary intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine with the risk of esophageal cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) prospective study

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 p-for trenda p-interaction
Vitamin B12        0.18
Never drinker
  Number at risk 9,333 9,956 9,899 9,591 9,224   
  Person-years 160,871 168,690 165,816 159,579 153,650   
  Case, n 7 11 19 26 23   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 1.45 (0.56–3.75) 2.31 (0.96–5.53) 3.27 (1.39–7.66) 2.82 (1.18–6.74) 0.009  
Alcohol intake 0–150 g/week
  Number at risk 2,554 3,142 3,425 3,697 3,380   
  Person-years 44,250 53,644 57,610 61,874 56,835   
  Case, n 8 7 12 15 16   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 0.70 (0.25–1.94) 1.08 (0.44–2.65) 1.21 (0.50–2.91) 1.28 (0.53–3.09) 0.34  
Alcohol intake > 150 g/week
  Number at risk 5,161 3,878 3,665 3,721 4,372   
  Person-years 85,509 63,418 60,921 61,546 71,490   
  Case, n 65 52 48 45 64   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 1.13 (0.78–1.64) 1.09 (0.74–1.61) 0.99 (0.66–1.47) 1.13 (0.78–1.63) 0.66  
Vitamin B6        0.89
Never drinker
  Number at risk 9,094 9,602 9,631 9,447 9,150   
  Person-years 173,187 181,266 169,377 151,569 133,206   
  Case, n 10 16 20 21 19   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 1.37 (0.62–3.03) 1.58 (0.73–3.39) 1.69 (0.78–3.64) 1.53 (0.69–3.37) 0.31  
Alcohol intake 0–150 g/week
  Number at risk 2,627 3,108 3,494 3,622 3,347   
  Person-years 45,054 53,227 59,136 61,086 55,710   
  Case, n 4 12 15 18 9   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 2.23 (0.72–6.94) 2.17 (0.72–6.60) 2.26 (0.75–6.80) 1.11 (0.33–3.68) 0.60  
Alcohol intake > 150 g/week
  Number at risk 4,478 3,205 3,385 4,236 5,493   
  Person-years 73,024 53,030 56,065 70,334 90,430   
  Case, n 61 47 46 43 77   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 1.10 (0.75–1.63) 1.00 (0.67–1.48) 0.79 (0.52–1.18) 1.03 (0.72–1.47) 0.83  
Folate        0.41
Never drinker
  Number at risk 7,560 9,277 9,946 10,401 10,819   
  Person-years 129,722 156,106 166,190 175,262 181464   
  Case, n 13 12 19 27 15   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 0.74 (0.33–1.69) 1.19 (0.57–2.50) 1.43 (0.71–2.92) 0.76 (0.35–1.69) 0.80  
Alcohol intake 0–150 g/week
  Number at risk 2,662 3,339 3,454 3,397 3,346   
  Person-years 45,040 56,139 58,275 57,803 56,956   
  Case, n 10 9 13 20 6   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 0.65 (0.26–1.61) 0.93 (0.40–2.14) 1.40 (0.64–3.05) 0.40 (0.14–1.12) 0.30  
Alcohol intake > 150 g/week
  Number at risk 6,891 4,389 3,546 3,183 2,788   
  Person-years 112,892 72,205 58,818 52,931 46,036   
  Case, n 84 58 44 42 46   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 1.12 (0.79–1.57) 1.06 (0.73–1.54) 1.05 (0.72–1.55) 1.30 (0.89–1.89) 0.25  
Methionine        0.02
Never drinker
  Number at risk 8,214 10,251 10,241 9,929 9,368   
  Person-years 141,928 174,731 172,663 164,817 154,605   
  Case, n 5 13 11 25 32   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 2.02 (0.72–5.68) 1.52 (0.52–4.38) 2.92 (1.10–7.71) 3.45 (1.32–9.06) 0.003  
Alcohol intake 0–150 g/week
  Number at risk 2,031 2,743 3,445 4,001 3,978   
  Person-years 34,893 47,437 57,881 67,544 66,457   
  Case, n 4 10 14 16 14   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 1.68 (0.53–5.37) 1.54 (0.50–4.74) 1.37 (0.45–4.14) 1.06 (0.34–3.27) 0.52  
Alcohol intake > 150 g/week
  Number at risk 6,852 3,956 3,309 3,067 3,613   
  Person-years 112,220 65,083 54,758 51,056 59,764   
  Case, n 98 65 28 32 51   
  Model 2 b 1.00 (reference) 1.23 (0.89–1.70) 0.64 (0.42–0.99) 0.80 (0.53–1.22) 1.03 (0.72–1.48) 0.68  
  1. Abbreviations: HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.
  2. a Median values of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine in each quintile were used to test for a linear trend across quintiles.
  3. b Model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, public health center area, body mass index (quintiles), smoking (never, past, current; ≤19 cigarettes/day, 20–29 cigarettes/day, or ≥30 cigarettes/day), alcohol consumption (non-drinkers, ≤150 g/week, 150<alcohol≤300 g/week, 300<alcohol<450 g/week, or ≥450 g/week) for the ever-drinkers’ group, family history of cancer, and physical activity in METs (quintiles)