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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants according to quintiles of energy-adjusted dietary intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine

From: Association of dietary intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine with the risk of esophageal cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) prospective study

Characteristics Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 p valuea
Vitamin B12 b
 No. of participants 17,410 17,411 17,411 17,411 17,410  
 Male, n (%) 8,003 (46.0) 7,555 (43.4) 7,978 (45.8) 8,290 (47.6) 8,890 (51.1) <.0001
 Age, years c 56.2 ± 7.9 56.7 ± 8.0 56.8 ± 8.0 57.2 ± 7.7 57.7 ± 7.5 <.0001
 BMI, kg/m2 c 23.8 ± 3.5 23.7 ± 3.5 23.5 ± 3.2 23.5 ± 3.3 23.5 ± 3.4 <.0001
 Current smokers, n (%) 3,877 (22.3) 3,672 (21.1) 3,783 (21.7) 3,927 (22.6) 4,396 (25.3) <.0001
 Family history of cancer, yes (n [%]) 2,249 (12.9) 2,454 (14.1) 2,627 (15.1) 2,829 (16.3) 2,828 (16.2) <.0001
 METs unit c 34.2 ± 6.3 33.5 ± 6.0 33.2 ± 5.9 33.3 ± 6.0 33.6 ± 6.1 <.0001
 Alcohol consumption, ethanol g/week c 163.9 ± 299.4 94.8 ± 180.3 84.6 ± 163.8 85.8 ± 162.5 102.7 ± 180.7 <.0001
 Alcohol, n (%)       0.004
  Non-drinkers 9,333 (53.6) 9,956 (57.2) 9,899 (56.9) 9,591 (55.1) 9,224 (53.0)  
  ≤150 g/week 2,554 (14.7) 3,139 (18.0) 3,425 (19.7) 3,695 (21.2) 3,380 (19.4)  
  150<alcohol≤300 g/week 1,282 (7.4) 1,497 (8.6) 1,646 (9.5) 1,672 (9.6) 1,827 (10.5)  
  300<alcohol<450 g/week 1,260 (7.2) 1,158 (6.7) 1,107 (6.4) 1,134 (6.5) 1,302 (7.5)  
  ≥450 g/week 2,619 (15.0) 1,226 (7.0) 912 (5.2) 917 (5.3) 1,243 (7.1)  
  Energy, kcal/day c 2,398.1 ± 710.5 1,859.0 ± 572.3 1,774.0 ± 602.0 1,854.9 ± 627.3 2,218.3 ± 746.4 <.0001
  Vitamin B6, mg/day c 1.3 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.4 <.0001
  Vitamin B12, μg/day c 3.7 ± 2.6 7.4 ± 0.6 9.3 ± 0.6 11.6 ± 0.8 18.3 ± 6.7 <.0001
  Folate, μg/day c 361.8 ± 200.0 392.5 ± 135.3 406.5 ± 127.7 425.6 ± 132.1 453.7 ± 166.4 <.0001
  Methionine, mg/day c 1,293.0 ± 363.3 1,525.3 ± 215.1 1,638.0 ± 211.3 1,763.6 ± 230.0 2,079.1 ± 469.0 <.0001
Vitamin B6 b
 No. of participants 17,410 17,411 17,411 17,411 17,410  
 Male, n (%) 6,848 (39.3) 6,429 (36.9) 7,768 (44.6) 9,091 (52.2) 10,580 (60.8) <.0001
 Age, years c 55.0 ± 7.6 56.3 ± 7.9 57.2 ± 7.9 57.7 ± 7.7 58.5 ± 7.6 <.0001
 BMI, kg/m2c 23.7 ± 3.4 23.5 ± 3.3 23.5 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 3.5 23.7 ± 3.4 0.05
 Current smokers, n (%) 4,237 (24.3) 3,511 (20.2) 3,654 (21.0) 3,986 (22.9) 4,268 (24.5) <.0001
 Family history of cancer, yes (n [%]) 2,191 (12.6) 2,423 (13.9) 2,673 (15.4) 2,744 (15.8) 2,956 (17.0) <.0001
 METs unit c 33.8 ± 6.2 33.2 ± 5.9 33.4 ± 6.0 33.5 ± 6.1 33.8 ± 6.2 <.0001
 Alcohol consumption, ethanol g/week c 151.1 ± 296.8 80.5 ± 172.6 80.8 ± 163.6 95.1 ± 167.8 124.1 ± 188.7 <.0001
 Alcohol, n (%)       <.0001
  Non-drinkers 9,988 (57.4) 1,0644 (61.1) 10,082 (57.9) 9,151 (52.6) 8,135 (46.7)  
  ≤150 g/week 2,627 (15.1) 3,104 (17.8) 3,494 (20.1) 3,621 (20.8) 3,347 (19.2)  
  150<alcohol≤300 g/week 1,060 (6.1) 1,269 (7.3) 1,465 (8.4) 1,916 (11.0) 2,214 (12.7)  
  300<alcohol<450 g/week 824 (4.7) 912 (5.2) 1,043 (6.0) 1,338 (7.7) 1,845 (10.6)  
  ≥450 g/week 2,590 (14.9) 1,031 (5.9) 875 (5.0) 984 (5.7) 1,434 (8.2)  
  Energy, kcal/day c 2,265.4 ± 735.6 1,833.1 ± 615.5 1,817.3 ± 609.6 1,917.5 ± 623.3 2,270.8 ± 742.7 <.0001
  Vitamin B6, mg/day c 1.1 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.04 1.7 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.3 <.0001
  Vitamin B12, μg/day c 5.7 ± 4.0 8.5 ± 3.2 9.7 ± 3.5 11.2 ± 4.2 15.0 ± 8.2 <.0001
  Folate, μg/day c 280.8 ± 109.9 364.3 ± 94.4 405.6 ± 102.8 449.7 ± 121.3 539.6 ± 202.7 <.0001
  Methionine, mg/day c 1,377.7 ± 371.2 1,561.9 ± 242.1 1,644.6 ± 252.9 1,736.3 ± 286.3 1,978.2 ± 544.5 <.0001
Folate b
 No. of participants 17,410 17,411 17,411 17,411 17,410 <.0001
 Male, n (%) 10,072 (57.9) 8,732 (50.2) 7,646 (43.9) 7,310 (42.0) 6,956 (40.0) <.0001
 Age, years c 54.9 ± 7.5 56.3 ± 7.9 57.0 ± 7.9 57.8 ± 7.8 58.7 ± 7.7 <.0001
 BMI, kg/m2 c 23.7 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 3.4 23.5 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 3.5 0.03
 Current smokers, n (%) 5,664 (32.5) 4,148 (23.8) 3,557 (20.4) 3,254 (18.7) 3,033 (17.4) <.0001
 Family history of cancer, yes (n [%]) 2,222 (12.8) 2,343 (13.5) 2,650 (15.2) 2,814 (16.2) 2,958 (17.0) <.0001
 METs unit c 33.9 ± 6.4 33.3 ± 6.1 33.3 ± 6.0 33.6 ± 6.0 33.7 ± 6.0 0.004
 Alcohol consumption, ethanol g/week c 209.3 ± 311.1 103.7 ± 182.4 82.0 ± 159.2 72.6 ± 150.4 63.4 ± 140.6 <.0001
 Alcohol intake, n (%)       <.0001
  Non-drinkers 7,560 (43.4) 9,272 (53.3) 9,943 (57.1) 10,401 (59.7) 10,819 (62.1)  
  ≤150 g/week 2,661 (15.3) 3,338 (19.2) 3,452 (19.8) 3,397 (19.8) 3,345 (19.2)  
  150<alcohol≤300 g/week 1,695 (9.7) 1,797 (10.3) 1,600 (9.2) 1,490 (8.6) 1,342 (7.7)  
  300<alcohol<450 g/week 1,701 (9.8) 1,346 (7.7) 1,087 (6.2) 956 (5.5) 871 (5.0)  
  ≥450 g/week 3,496 (20.1) 1,247 (7.2) 861 (5.0) 737 (4.2) 576 (3.3)  
  Energy, kcal/day c 2,335.4 ± 727.8 1,880.2 ± 634.5 1,837.6 ± 622.5 1,910.2 ± 645.3 2,140.9 ± 725.3 <.0001
  Vitamin B6, mg/day c 1.3 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.4 <.0001
  Vitamin B12, μg/day c 8.0 ± 6.7 9.7 ± 4.7 10.4 ± 4.9 10.8 ± 5.0 11.4 ± 6.9 <.0001
  Folate, μg/day c 224.5 ± 68.2 326.7 ± 18.4 388.1 ± 18.0 461.6 ± 26.1 639.2 ± 146.7 <.0001
  Methionine, mg/day c 1,547.7 ± 525.4 1,655.1 ± 346.1 1,691.4 ± 342.1 1,706.8 ± 348.6 1,698.1 ± 428.7 <.0001
Methionine b
 No. of participants 17,410 17,411 17,411 17,411 17,410  
 Male, n (%) 7,924 (45.5) 6,273 (36.0) 7,211 (41.4) 8,748 (50.2) 10,560 (60.7) <.0001
 Age, years c 55.7 ± 7.8 56.7 ± 7.9 57.1 ± 8.0 57.3 ± 7.8 57.8 ± 7.6 <.0001
 BMI, kg/m2 c 23.6 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 3.5 23.6 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 3.3 0.06
 Current-smokers, n (%) 4,620 (26.5) 3,364 (19.3) 3,439 (19.8) 3,811 (21.9) 4,422 (25.4) <.0001
 Family history of cancer, yes (n [%]) 2,460 (14.1) 2,519 (14.5) 2,667 (15.3) 2,649 (15.2) 2,692 (15.5) 0.006
 METs unit c 34.2± 6.3 33.5 ± 6.0 33.3 ± 5.9 33.2 ± 6.0 33.4± 6.1 <.0001
 Alcohol intake, ethanol g/week c 221.4 ± 329.4 90.4± 167.2 71.8 ± 139.4 67.0 ± 131.4 80.8 ± 148.2 <.0001
 Alcohol intake, n (%)       <.0001
  Non-drinkers 8,214 (47.2) 10,251 (58.9) 10,241 (58.8) 9,929 (57.0) 9,368 (53.8)  
  ≤150 g/week 2,031 (11.7) 2,743 (15.8) 3,445 (19.8) 4,001 (23.0) 3,978 (22.9)  
  150<alcohol≤300 g/week 1,249 (7.2) 1,532 (8.8) 1,635 (9.4) 1,665 (9.6) 1,843 (10.6)  
  300<alcohol<450 g/week 1,692 (9.7) 1,326 (7.6) 1,023 (5.9) 881 (5.1) 1,039 (6.0)  
  ≥450 g/week 3,911 (22.5) 1,100 (6.3) 654 (3.8) 521 (3.0) 731 (4.2)  
  Energy, kcal/day c 2,323.2 ± 701.9 1,859.0 ± 594.3 1,799.7 ± 602.0 1,866.1 ± 622.7 2,256.3 ± 774.2 <.0001
  Vitamin B6, mg/day c 1.3 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.2 1.5 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.4 <.0001
  Vitamin B12, μg/day c 5.0 ± 3.7 8.0 ± 2.7 9.6 ± 2.8 11.4 ± 3.5 16.2 ± 7.9 <.0001
  Folate, μg /day c 378.4 ± 202.1 401.1 ± 141.2 410.2 ± 130.6 420.0 ± 134.4 430.4 ± 164.4 <.0001
  Methionine, mg/day c 1,169.7 ± 247.7 1,485.1 ± 47.3 1,633.3 ± 41.6 1,797.1 ± 56.3 2,213.9 ± 411.9 <.0001
  1. a Chi-square test for qualitative variables, ANOVA for continuous variables.
  2. b Cut-offs for quintiles of dietary intake of vitamin B12 were 6.24, 8.35, 10.28, and 13.2μg /day. Cut-offs for quintiles of dietary intake of vitamin B6 were 1.31, 1.46, 1.61, and 1.79 mg/day. Cut-offs for quintiles of dietary intake of folate were 293.24, 357.78, 420.28, and 511.80μg /day. Cut-offs for quintiles of dietary intake of methionine were 1395.84, 1562.41, 1707.36, and 1904.13 mg/day.
  3. c Mean ± standard deviation, all such variables