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Table 2 Adjusted HRs for dietary sodium, selenium, zinc, phosphorus and iron at breakfast, lunch and dinner and cancer, and all-cause mortality

From: The association of minerals intake in three meals with cancer and all-cause mortality: the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2014

  Cancer mortality All-cause mortality
  Case/N HR (95%CI) Case/N HR (95%CI)
Sodium (breakfast)
 Q1(0.00,241.00) 96/5554 1 415/5554 1
 Q2(241.50,451.00) 127/5515 1.26 (0.96–1.66) 573/5515 1.04 (0.92–1.19)
 Q3(451.50,706.00) 118/5477 1.07 (0.81–1.42) 581/5477 0.97 (0.85–1.10)
 Q4(706.50,1104.00) 130/5480 1.15 (0.88–1.52) 610/5480 1.03 (0.90–1.17)
 Q5(1104.50,7315.50) 130/5429 1.31 (0.99–1.73) 501/5429 1.02 (0.89–1.18)
P for trend   0.194   0.843
Sodium (lunch)
 Q1(0.00,133.50) 133/5372 1 573/5372 1
 Q2(134.00,675.00) 142/5556 1.10 (0.86–1.40) 614/5556 1.07 (0.95–1.21)
 Q3(676.00,1136.50) 125/5500 1.04 (0.81–1.34) 557/5500 1.07 (0.95–1.22)
 Q4(1137.00,1732.00) 104/5505 0.84 (0.64–1.10) 496/5505 0.98 (0.86–1.12)
Q5(1732.50,7313.50) 97/5522 0.85 (0.64–1.13) 440/5522 1.01 (0.88–1.15)
P for trend   0.074   0.656
Sodium (dinner)
 Q1(0.00,661.00) 148/5305 1 645/5305 1
 Q2(661.50,1140) 135/5524 0.93 (0.73–1.19) 599/5524 0.96 (0.85–1.08)
 Q3(1140.50,1617.50) 113/5520 0.76 (0.60–1.00) 514/5520 0.88 (0.78–1.00)
 Q4(1618.00,2304.50) 100/5541 0.72 (0.55–0.96) 504/5541 0.92 (0.81–1.05)
 Q5(2305.00,12,776.00) 105/5565 0.76 (0.57–1.01) 418/5565 0.87 (0.75–1.01)
P for trend   0.010   0.040
Selenium (breakfast)
 Q1(0.00,11.40) 130/7640 1 603/7640 1
 Q2(11.40,19.20) 111/4962 1.16 (0.90–1.50) 500/4962 0.95 (0.84–1.07)
 Q3(19.20,28.60) 139/4999 1.44 (1.13–1.83) 561/4999 1.07 (0.95–1.21)
 Q4(28.60,42.50) 114/4941 1.08 (0.84–1.41) 585/4941 1.01 (0.90–1.14)
 Q5(42.50,509.25) 107/4913 1.24 (0.95–1.62) 431/4913 0.99 (0.87–1.13)
P for trend   0.182   0.725
Selenium (lunch)
 Q1(0.00,5.55) 163/6509 1 693/6509 1
 Q2(5.55,22.10) 135/5536 1.04 (0.82–1.31) 623/5536 1.10 (0.98–1.23)
 Q3(22.15,35.65) 112/5126 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 504/5126 1.01 (0.90–1.14)
 Q4(35.65,54.70) 101/5144 0.92 (0.71–1.19) 440/5144 0.97 (0.85–1.10)
 Q5(54.75,888.95) 90/5140 0.88 (0.67–1.16) 420/5140 1.03 (0.90–1.17)
P for trend   0.294   0.728
Selenium (dinner)
 Q1(0.00,21.90) 152/5938 1 713/5938 1
 Q2(21.90,37.30) 115/5339 0.88 (0.68–1.13) 552/5339 0.94 (0.84–1.06)
 Q3(37.30,53.65) 106/5385 0.85 (0.66–1.10) 493/5385 0.89 (0.79–1.01)
 Q4(53.65,78.00) 123/5388 1.04 (0.80–1.34) 506/5388 1.04 (0.92–1.17)
 Q5(78.05,615.20) 105/5405 0.94 (0.71–1.24) 416/5405 0.94 (0.82–1.08)
P for trend   0.973   0.773
Zinc (breakfast)
 Q1(0.00,1.04) 100/5994 1 473/5994 1
 Q2(1.05,2.34) 175/7654 1.27 (0.99–1.62) 733/7654 0.95 (0.84–1.07)
 Q3(2.34,4.25) 157/7219 1.21 (0.85–1.42) 749/7219 0.95 (0.85–1.08)
 Q4(4.25,6.54) 98/3814 1.43 (1.07–1.90) 403/3814 1.01 (0.87–1.16)
 Q5(6.54,67.97) 71/2774 1.29 (0.94–1.77) 322/2774 0.97 (0.84–1.13)
P for trend   0.084   0.909
Zinc (lunch)
 Q1(0.00,0.00) 77/2939 1 325/2939 1
 Q2(0.01,1.45) 155/6429 0.98 (0.76–1.32) 686/6429 1.07 (0.94–1.23)
 Q3(1.45,3.70) 201/8916 0.96 (0.74–1.26) 862/8916 1.02 (0.90–1.17)
 Q4(3.70,6.10) 89/5422 0.72 (0.53–1.00) 469/5422 1.01 (0.87–1.17)
 Q5(6.10,151.99) 79/3749 0.97 (0.69–1.35) 338/3749 1.06 (0.90–1.25)
P for trend   0.234   0.973
Zinc (dinner)
 Q1(0.00,2.21) 149/6095 1 678/6095 1
 Q2(2.22,4.47) 178/8256 0.91 (0.73–1.14) 793/8256 0.95 (0.85–1.06)
 Q3(4.48,6.40) 106/5256 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 495/5256 0.97 (0.85–1.09)
 Q4(6.40,9.35) 98/4456 0.94 (0.71–1.23) 428/4456 0.99 (0.87–1.13)
 Q5(9.35,166.43) 70/3392 0.86 (0.63–1.19) 286/3392 0.92 (0.78–1.07)
P for trend   0.449   0.524
Phosphorus (breakfast)
 Q1(0.00,150.00) 88/5548 1 433/5548 1
 Q2(150.50,266.00) 130/5525 1.34 (1.02–1.76) 535/5525 0.94 (0.82–1.07)
 Q3(266.50,386.50) 140/5503 1.35 (1.02–1.77) 609/5503 0.98 (0.86–1.11)
 Q4(387.00,564.00) 124/5476 1.19 (0.90–1.58) 580/5476 0.93 (0.81–1.05)
 Q5(564.50,3297.00) 119/5403 1.22 (0.92–1.63) 523/5403 0.94 (0.82–1.07)
P for trend   0.484   0.350
Phosphorus (lunch)
 Q1(0.00,70.00) 143/5371 1 594/5371 1
 Q2(70.50,251.50) 133/5562 0.91 (0.71–1.15) 600/5562 1.04 (0.92–1.17)
 Q3(252.00,407.00) 118/5507 0.84 (0.65–1.08) 555/5507 0.99 (0.88–1.12)
 Q4(407.50,610.50) 108/5504 0.79 (0.61–1.03) 486/5504 0.96 (0.84–1.09)
 Q5(611.00,3280.50) 99/5511 0.80 (0.61–1.06) 445/5511 1.01 (0.89–1.16)
P for trend   0.066   0.665
Phosphorus (dinner)
 Q1(0.00,265.50) 139/5299 1 642/5299 1
 Q2(266.00,432.00) 131/5538 0.91 (0.72–1.17) 564/5538 0.88 (0.78–0.99)
 Q3(432.50,606.50) 119/5529 0.86 (0.66–1.11) 562/5529 0.98 (0.87–1.10)
 Q4(607.00,844.00) 113/5543 0.78 (0.60–1.02) 483/5543 0.85 (0.75–0.97)
 Q5(844.50,4555.00) 99/5546 0.76 (0.56–1.01) 429/5546 0.88 (0.77–1.01)
P for trend   0.034   0.074
Iron (breakfast)
 Q1(0.00,2.19) 134/7613 1 552/7613 1
 Q2(2.19,4.76) 151/7660 1.02 (0.81–1.29) 735/7660 1.07 (0.95–1.19)
 Q3(4.76,7.60) 142/5288 1.28 (1.00–1.64) 613/5288 1.14 (1.01–1.29)
 Q4(7.60,11.28) 103/3572 1.34 (1.02–1.76) 402/3572 1.06 (0.92–1.21)
 Q5(11.28,85.00) 71/3322 0.97 (0.72–1.32) 378/3322 0.97 (0.84–1.11)
P for trend   0.276   0.798
Iron (lunch)
 Q1(0.00,0.13) 94/3411 1 377/3411 1
 Q2(0.13,2.53) 174/7429 0.94 (0.73–1.22) 787/7429 1.06 (0.94–1.21)
 Q3(2.53,4.81) 163/7628 0.89 (0.69–1.16) 747/7628 1.07 (0.94–1.22)
 Q4(4.81,7.47) 103/5357 0.81 (0.60–1.08) 457/5357 0.96 (0.83–1.11)
 Q5(7.47,61.02) 67/3630 0.81 (0.58–1.13) 312/3630 1.05 (0.89–1.23)
P for trend   0.109   0.760
Iron (dinner)
 Q1(0.00,2.98) 168/6440 1 708/6440 1
 Q2(2.98,5.24) 153/7323 0.80 (0.64–1.01) 733/7323 0.94 (0.84–1.04)
 Q3(5.24,7.48) 117/5784 0.82 (0.64–1.05) 5,745,784 1.02 (0.91–1.15)
 Q4(7.48,10.24) 90/4140 0.79 (0.60–1.04) 358/4140 0.88 (0.76–1.00)
 Q5(10.24,97.27) 73/3768 0.79 (0.59–1.07) 307/3768 0.91 (0.78–1.05)
P for trend   0.106   0.124
  1. Adjustments included age, sex, ethnicity, income, education level, regular exercise, smoking and drinking status, BMI, prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, nutrient supplement use, AHEI, total daily energy intake and total dietary minerals intake. Q, Quintile. HR, hazard ratio