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Table 2 Association of precancerous conditions, abnormal gastric biopsy, atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia with demographic and clinical characteristics of the dyspeptic patients

From: Characteristics of gastric precancerous conditions and Helicobacter pylori infection among dyspeptic patients in north-eastern Iran: is endoscopic biopsy and histopathological assessment necessary?

Categorical variable Precancerous conditions (n = 585) P-value Abnormal gastric biopsy (n = 585) P-value Atrophy (n = 585) P-value Metaplasia (n = 585) P-value Dysplasia (n = 585) P-value
Yes (n = 122) No (n = 463) Yes (n = 103) No (n = 482) Yes (n = 74) No (n = 511) Yes (n = 89) No (n = 496) Yes (n = 46) No (n = 539)
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age (years)
  < = 40 7 (5.7) 208 (44.9) 0.001 59 (57.3) 156 (32.4) 0.001 2 (2.7) 213 (41.7) 0.001 5 (5.6) 210 (42.3) 0.001 2 (4.3) 213 (39.5) 0.001
 41–50 33 (27.1) 91 (19.7) 16 (15.5) 107 (22.4) 13 (17.6) 111 (21.7) 19 (21.3) 105 (21.2) 16 (34.8) 108 (20.0)
 51–60 34 (27.9) 89 (19.2) 16 (15.5) 108 (22.2) 22 (29.7) 101 (19.8) 24 (27.0) 99 (20.0) 9 (19.6) 114 (21.2)
  > = 61 48 (39.3) 75 (16.2) 12 (11.7) 111 (23.0) 37 (50.0) 86 (16.8) 41 (46.1) 82 (16.5) 19 (41.3) 104 (19.3)
Sex
 Female (n = 397) 76 (62.3) 321 (69.3) 0.15 78 (75.7) 319 (66.2) 0.06 41 (55.4) 356 (69.7) 0.01 52 (58.4) 345 (69.6) 0.04 32 (69.6) 365 (67.7) 0.79
 Male (n = 188) 46 (37.7) 142 (30.7) 25 (24.3) 163 (33.8) 33 (44.6) 155 (30.3) 37 (41.6) 151 (30.4) 14 (30.4) 174 (32.3)
Smoking
 Yes (n = 112) 25 (20.5) 87 (18.8) 0.69 16 (15.5) 96 (19.9) 0.38 17 (23.0) 95 (18.6) 0.37 20 (22.5) 92 (18.5) 0.39 9 (19.6) 103 (19.1) 0.94
 No (n = 473) 97 (79.5) 376 (81.2) 87 (84.5) 386 (80.1) 57 (77.0) 416 (81.4)
69 (77.5) 404 (81.5) 37 (80.4) 436 (80.9)
Addiction*
 Yes (n = 146) 43 (35.2) 103 (22.2) 0.003 19 (18.4) 127 (26.3) 0.09 30 (40.5) 116 (22.7) 0.001 35 (39.3) 111 (22.4) 0.001 17 (36.9) 129 (23.9) 0.05
 No (n = 439) 79 (64.8) 360 (77.8) 84 (81.6) 355 (73.7) 44 (59.5) 395 (77.3) 54 (60.7) 385 (77.6) 29 (63.1) 410 (76.1)
Alcohol consumption
 Yes (n = 50) 11 (9.0) 39 (8.4) 0.85 8 (7.8) 42 (8.7) 0.85 6 (8.1) 44 (8.6) 0.88 6 (6.7) 44 (8.9) 0.86 3 (6.5) 47 (8.7) 0.78
 No (n = 535) 111 (81.0) 424 (91.6) 95 (92.2) 440 (91.3) 68 (91.9) 467 (91.4) 83 (93.3) 452 (91.1) 43 (93.5) 492 (91.3)
NSAID use
 Yes (n = 173) 18 (14.7) 155 (33.5) 0.001 27 (26.2) 146 (30.3) 0.47 11 (14.9) 162 (31.7) 0.003 13 (14.6) 160 (32.3) 0.001 6 (13.0) 167 (31.0) 0.01
 No (n = 412) 104 (85.3) 308 (66.5) 76 (73.8) 336 (69.7) 63 (85.1) 349 (68.3) 76 (85.4) 336 (67.7) 46 (87.0) 372 (69.0)
Aspirin use
 Yes (n = 88) 15 (12.3) 73 (15.8) 0.39 15 (14.6) 73 (15.1) 1.0 13 (17.6) 75 (14.7) 0.51 8 (9.0) 80 (16.1) 0.08 6 (13.0) 82 (15.2) 0.69
 No (n = 497) 107 (87.7) 390 (84.2) 88 (85.4) 409 (84.9) 61 (82.4) 436 (85.3) 81 (91.0) 416 (83.9) 40 (87.0) 457 (84.8)
Diabetes (types I and II)
 Yes (n = 99) 20 (16.4) 79 (17.1) 1.0 13 (12.6) 86 (17.8) 0.25 15 (20.3) 84 (16.4) 0.41 18 (20.2) 81 (16.3) 0.37 6 (13.0) 93 (17.3) 0.46
 No (n = 486) 102 (83.6) 384 (82.9) 90 (87.4) 396 (82.2) 59 (79.7) 427 (83.6) 71 (79.8) 415 (83.7) 40 (87.0) 446 (82.7)
H. pylori infection
 Yes (n = 469) 114 (93.4) 355 (76.7) 0.001 52 (50.5) 417 (86.5) 0.001 68 (91.9) 401 (78.5) 0.007 83 (93.3) 383 (77.8) 0.001 42 (91.3) 427 (79.2) 0.048
 No (n = 116) 8 (6.6) 108 (23.3) 51 (49.5) 65 (13.5) 6 (8.1) 110 (21.5) 6 (6.7) 110 (22.2) 4 (8.7) 112 (20.8)
Dyspepsia pattern
 EPS (n = 245) 50 (41.0) 195 (42.1) 0.99 46 (44.7) 199 (41.3) 0.45 31 (41.9) 214 (41.9) 0.99 37 (41.6) 208 (41.9) 0.99 17 (37.0) 228 (42.3) 0.46
 Flatulence (n = 143) 30 (24.6) 113 (24.4) 20 (19.4) 123 (25.5) 18 (24.3) 125 (24.5) 22 (24.7) 121 (24.4) 9 (19.6) 134 (24.9)
 Early satiation (n = 48) 11 (9.0) 37 (8.0) 6 (5.8) 42 (8.7) 7 (9.5) 41 (8.0) 7 (7.9) 41 (8.3) 6 (13.0) 42 (7.8)
 PF (n = 48) 10 (8.2) 38 (8.2) 9 (8.2) 39 (8.2) 6 (8.1) 42 (8.2) 8 (9.0) 40 (8.1) 6 (13.0) 42 (7.8)
 Reflux (n = 101) 21 (17.2) 80 (17.3) 22 (21.4) 79 (16.4) 12 (16.2) 89 (17.4) 15 (16.9) 86 (17.3) 8 (17.4) 93 (17.3)
Endoscopic findings
 Normal (n = 121) 5 (4.1) 116 (25.0) 0.001 5 (4.1) 116 (25.0) 0.001 2 (2.7) 119 (23.3) 0.001 5 (5.6) 116 (23.4) 0.001 2 (4.3) 119 (22.1) 0.001
 Erythema (n = 176) 23 (18.8) 153 (33.1) 23 (18.8) 153 (33.1) 10 (13.5) 166 (32.5) 12 (13.5) 164 (33.1) 12 (26.1) 164 (30.4)
 M o/s (n = 151) 33 (27.1) 118 (25.5) 33 (27.1) 118 (25.5) 18 (24.3) 133 (26.0) 20 (22.5) 131 (26.4) 12 (26.1) 139 (25.8)
 Erosion (n = 68) 18 (14.7) 50 (10.8) 18 (14.7) 50 (10.8) 11 (14.9) 57 (11.2) 17 (19.1) 51 (10.3) 6 (13.0) 62 (11.5)
 GDU (n = 36) 21 (17.2) 15 (3.2) 21 (17.2) 15 (3.2) 12 (16.2) 24 (4.7) 16 (18.0) 20 (4.0) 7 (15.2) 29 (5.4)
 Atrophy (n = 33) 22 (18.1) 11 (2.4) 22 (18.1) 11 (2.4) 21 (28.4) 12 (2.3) 19 (21.3) 14 (2.8) 7 (15.2) 26 (4.8)
FHGC
 None (n = 397) 89 (73.0) 308 (66.5) 0.77 75 (72.8) 322 (66.8) 0.012 50 (67.6) 347 (67.9) 0.87 61 (68.5) 336 (67.7) 0.98 38 (82.6) 359 (66.6) 0.53
 GC (n = 69) 12 (9.9) 57 (12.3) 13 (12.6) 56 (11.6) 7 (9.5) 62 (12.1) 11 (12.4) 58 (11.7) 3 (6.5) 66 (12.2)
 IC (n = 1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 1 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.2)
 CC (n = 81) 17 (13.9) 64 (13.8) 5 (4.9) 76 (15.8) 14 (18.9) 67 (13.1) 13 (14.6) 68 (13.7) 4 (8.7) 77 (14.3)
 OC (n = 12) 2 (1.6) 10 (2.2) 2 (1.9) 10 (2.1) 1 (1.4) 11 (2.2) 2 (2.2) 10 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 12 (2.2)
 LC (n = 14) 1 (0.8) 13 (2.8) 4 (3.9) 10 (2.1) 1 (1.4) 13 (2.5) 1 (1.1) 13 (2.6) 1 (2.2) 13 (2.4)
 PC (n = 11) 1 (0.8) 10 (2.2) 3 (2.9) 8 (1.7) 1 (1.4) 10 (2.0) 1 (1.1) 10 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 11 (2.0)
FHNGC
 None (n = 504) 112 (91.8) 392 (84.7) 0.12 81 (78.6) 423 (87.8) 0.04 66 (89.2) 438 (85.7) 0.15 81 (91.0) 423 (85.3) 0.15 42 (91.3) 462 (85.7) 0.64
 Breast (n = 34) 2 (1.6) 32 (6.9) 8 (7.8) 26 (5.4) 1 (1.4) 33 (6.5) 1 (1.1) 33 (6.7) 2 (4.3) 32 (5.9)
 Cervical (n = 6) 1 (0.8) 5 (1.1) 2 (1.9) 4 (0.8) 1 (1.4) 5 (1.0) 1 (1.1) 5 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (1.1)
 Ovarian (n = 6) 2 (1.6) 4 (0.9) 2 (1.9) 4 (0.8) 2 (2.7) 4 (0.8) 2 (2.2) 4 (0.8) 1 (2.2) 5 (0.9)
 Bladder (n = 4) 1 (0.8) 3 (0.6) 2 (1.9) 2 (0.4) 1 (1.4) 3 (0.6) 1 (1.1) 3 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.7)
 Kidney (n = 6) 1 (0.8) 4 (0.9) 3 (2.9) 2 (0.4) 1 (1.4) 4 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 5 (1.0) 1 (2.2) 4 (0.7)
 Haematological (n = 12) 0 (0.0) 12 (2.6) 2 (1.9) 10 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 12 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 12 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 12 (2.2)
 Pulmonary (n = 14) 3 (2.5) 11 (2.4) 3 (2.9) 11 (2.3) 2 (2.7) 12 (2.3) 3 (3.4) 11 (2.2) 0 (0.0) 14 (2.6)
Continuous variable mean ± SD mean ± SD P-value mean ± SD mean ± SD P-value mean ± SD mean ± SD P-value mean ± SD mean ± SD P-value mean ± SD mean ± SD P-value
Age (years) 57.8 ± 13.1 45.4 ± 13.7 0.001 41.6 ± 12.6 49.3 ± 14.5 0.001 61.0 ± 12.6 46.1 ± 13.7 0.001 59.4 ± 13.2 45.9 ± 13.7 0.001 58.6 ± 14.3 47.1 ± 14.1 0.001
Haemoglobin (Hgb) 13.3 ± 1.6 13.3 ± 1.5 0.48 13.4 ± 1.5 13.3 ± 1.5 0.62 12.9 ± 1.5 13.4 ± 1.5 0.14 13.1 ± 1.6 13.4 ± 1.5 0.12 13.4 ± 1.6 13.3 ± 1.5 0.48
25(OH)D3 vitamin 21.7 ± 13.0 18.1 ± 11.2 0.002 18.0 ± 11.5 19.0 ± 11.7 0.27 20.8 ± 12.4 18.5 ± 11.6 0.14 22.3 ± 13.7 18.2 ± 11.2 0.004 21.9 ± 11.2 18.6 ± 11.7 0.013
  1. EPS Epigastric pain syndrome; M o/s Mucosal oedema/swelling; PF Postprandial fullness; GDU Gastric or duodenal ulcer; FHGC Family history of gastro-intestinal cancer; FHNGC Family history of non-gastro/intestinal cancer; GC gastric cancer; IC Intestinal cancer; CC Colon cancer; OC Oesophagus cancer; LC Liver cancer; PC Pancreas cancer. *Addiction = opium and/or methamphetamine