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Table 4 Univariate and Multivariable Analysis to Assess Resilience and Its Associated Factors among Head and Neck Cancer Survivors (n = 250)

From: Resilience and its associated factors in head and neck cancer patients in Pakistan: an analytical cross-sectional study

  

4a.Univariate Analysis

4b. Multivariate Analysis

 

Variables

 

Unadjusted Beta Coefficient (SE)

95% Confidence Interval (CI)

Adjusted Beta Coefficient (SE)

95% Confidence Interval (CI)

 

Formal Schooling

Yes (ref)

     

No

- 3.37(1.93)

(−7.18,0.42) *

−0.66(2.04)

(− 4.67,3.36)

 

Years of schooling

 

0.24(0.18)

(−0.11,0.60) *

NS

NS

 

Role in family

Head/ decision makers of the family (ref)

 

Not Head /decision makers of the family

2.41(1.34)

(−0.288,5.05)*

1.86(1.11)

(− 0.33,4.05)

 

Not head/ not the decision makers of the family

−4.59(2.84)

(−10.21,1.01)*

0.67 (2.41)

(−4.07, 5.42)

 

Family members in the household

Less than 6 (ref)

 

More than 6

−0.18 (1.30)

(−2.74,2.38)*

−2.30 (1.02)

(−4.31,-0.29)**

 

Cardiovascular Disease

Yes

4.3 (3.30)

(−2.20, 10.80)*

NS

NS

 

No (ref)

     

Smokeless Tobacco user

Yes

9.71(2.86)

(4.06,15.35)*

10.12(2.20)

(5.79,14.45)**

 

No

0.855 (1.32)

(−1.74,3.45)

1.06 (1.03)

(−0.97, 3.08)

 

Ex user (ref)

 

  

Family History of any cancer

Yes

- 4.15(1.79)

(−7.67,-0.62)*

NS

NS

 

No (ref)

     

Family history of depression

Yes

- 5.49(3.29)

(−11.98,1.00)*

NS

NS

 

No (ref)

     

Deaths in the family

Yes

3.81(2.50)

(−1.11,8.74)*

NS

NS

 

No (ref)

     

Patient has Feeding tube

Yes

- 2.90 (1.30)

(−5.47, −0.33)*

NS

NS

 

No (ref)

     

Patient has tracheotomy

Yes

- 6.99 (2.41)

(−11.74, −2.24)*

- 3.98 (1.92)

(−7.67,-0.21)**

 

No (ref)

 

Patient has urine bag

Yes

−10.66 (7.26)

(− 24.96, 3.64)*

NS

NS

 
 

No (ref)

     

Adjuvant therapy

Chemotherapy

1.833(3.23)

(−4.53,8.19)

   

Radiotherapy

- 0.52(2.00)

(−4.46,3.42)

   

Combination

- 2.68 (1.59)

(−5.82,0.44)*

NS

NS

 

No Adjuvant Therapy (ref)

   

Social Support

<=18 low social support

−10.67(2.42)

(−15.44, −5.90)*

− 5.66(2.01)

(−9.62,-1.71)**

 

> 18 high social support (ref)

 

Depression

0–7(normal) (ref)

 

8–10(borderline abnormal)

- 7.32 (2.17)

(−11.60, −3.03)*

- 4.39 (2.03)

(−8.41,-0.39)**

 

11–21 (case abnormal)

- 21.80 (2.01)

(−25.76,-17.84)*

- 16.95 (2.04)

(−20.98,-12.93)**

 

Anxiety

0–7(normal) (ref)

 

8–10(borderline case)

−7.77 (3.67)

(−15.01, −0.53)*

- 6.58(2.97)

(−12.43,-0.73)**

 

11–21(case abnormal)

−23.179 (3.96)

(− 30.983, −15.375)*

− 11.03 (3.47)

(− 17.88, −4.18)**

 

Formal schooling * Role in the family

Formal schooling * Head/ decision makers of the family (ref)

  

 

No formal schooling * Not the head/ decision makers of the family

NA

NA

−0.32(3.08)

(−5.76,6.39)

 

No Formal schooling * Not head/ not decision makers of the family

  

−16.45(5.40)

(−27.08,-5.82)**

 
  1. R2 = 0.49
  2. *Significant at p value < 0.025 by univariate linear regression
  3. ** Significant at p value < 0.05 by multivariable linear regression
  4. NS (non-significant)
  5. NA (not-applicable)