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Table 4 Univariate and Multivariable Analysis to Assess Resilience and Its Associated Factors among Head and Neck Cancer Survivors (n = 250)

From: Resilience and its associated factors in head and neck cancer patients in Pakistan: an analytical cross-sectional study

   4a.Univariate Analysis 4b. Multivariate Analysis  
Variables   Unadjusted Beta Coefficient (SE) 95% Confidence Interval (CI) Adjusted Beta Coefficient (SE) 95% Confidence Interval (CI)  
Formal Schooling Yes (ref)      
No - 3.37(1.93) (−7.18,0.42) * −0.66(2.04) (− 4.67,3.36)  
Years of schooling   0.24(0.18) (−0.11,0.60) * NS NS  
Role in family Head/ decision makers of the family (ref)  
Not Head /decision makers of the family 2.41(1.34) (−0.288,5.05)* 1.86(1.11) (− 0.33,4.05)  
Not head/ not the decision makers of the family −4.59(2.84) (−10.21,1.01)* 0.67 (2.41) (−4.07, 5.42)  
Family members in the household Less than 6 (ref)  
More than 6 −0.18 (1.30) (−2.74,2.38)* −2.30 (1.02) (−4.31,-0.29)**  
Cardiovascular Disease Yes 4.3 (3.30) (−2.20, 10.80)* NS NS  
No (ref)      
Smokeless Tobacco user Yes 9.71(2.86) (4.06,15.35)* 10.12(2.20) (5.79,14.45)**  
No 0.855 (1.32) (−1.74,3.45) 1.06 (1.03) (−0.97, 3.08)  
Ex user (ref)    
Family History of any cancer Yes - 4.15(1.79) (−7.67,-0.62)* NS NS  
No (ref)      
Family history of depression Yes - 5.49(3.29) (−11.98,1.00)* NS NS  
No (ref)      
Deaths in the family Yes 3.81(2.50) (−1.11,8.74)* NS NS  
No (ref)      
Patient has Feeding tube Yes - 2.90 (1.30) (−5.47, −0.33)* NS NS  
No (ref)      
Patient has tracheotomy Yes - 6.99 (2.41) (−11.74, −2.24)* - 3.98 (1.92) (−7.67,-0.21)**  
No (ref)  
Patient has urine bag Yes −10.66 (7.26) (− 24.96, 3.64)* NS NS  
  No (ref)      
Adjuvant therapy Chemotherapy 1.833(3.23) (−4.53,8.19)    
Radiotherapy - 0.52(2.00) (−4.46,3.42)    
Combination - 2.68 (1.59) (−5.82,0.44)* NS NS  
No Adjuvant Therapy (ref)    
Social Support <=18 low social support −10.67(2.42) (−15.44, −5.90)* − 5.66(2.01) (−9.62,-1.71)**  
> 18 high social support (ref)  
Depression 0–7(normal) (ref)  
8–10(borderline abnormal) - 7.32 (2.17) (−11.60, −3.03)* - 4.39 (2.03) (−8.41,-0.39)**  
11–21 (case abnormal) - 21.80 (2.01) (−25.76,-17.84)* - 16.95 (2.04) (−20.98,-12.93)**  
Anxiety 0–7(normal) (ref)  
8–10(borderline case) −7.77 (3.67) (−15.01, −0.53)* - 6.58(2.97) (−12.43,-0.73)**  
11–21(case abnormal) −23.179 (3.96) (− 30.983, −15.375)* − 11.03 (3.47) (− 17.88, −4.18)**  
Formal schooling * Role in the family Formal schooling * Head/ decision makers of the family (ref)    
No formal schooling * Not the head/ decision makers of the family NA NA −0.32(3.08) (−5.76,6.39)  
No Formal schooling * Not head/ not decision makers of the family    −16.45(5.40) (−27.08,-5.82)**  
  1. R2 = 0.49
  2. *Significant at p value < 0.025 by univariate linear regression
  3. ** Significant at p value < 0.05 by multivariable linear regression
  4. NS (non-significant)
  5. NA (not-applicable)