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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Effect of cachexia on bone turnover in cancer patients: a case-control study

  All
(n = 52)
Cancer Cachexia (n = 31) Cancer
(n = 21)
p
Age a 64.3 (±8.5) 64.3 (±8.3) 64.4 (±9.1) 0.9
Stage III and IV, n (%) 36 (69.2) 22 (71) 14 (67) 0.7
Bone Metastases, n (%) 8 (15.4) 3 (9.7) 5 (24) 0.2
Tumor Type*     0.1
Lung, n (%) 38 (73) 19 (61.2) 19 (90.4)  
Gastrointestinal, n (%) 8 (15.4) 7 (22.6) 1 (4.8)  
Hematological, n (%) 3 (5.8) 3 (9.7) 0 (0)  
Other, n (%) 3 (5.8) 2 (6.5) 1 (4.,8)  
Anthropometric and BIA parameters
BMI, kg/m2 a 26.1 (±5.1) 25.6 (±4.8) 28 (±5.1) 0.04
BMI > 25 kg/m2, n (%) 33 (63.5) 16 (51.6) 17 (81%) 0.04
Waist circumference, cma 100.8 (±14) 98.6 (±14) 104 (±14) 0.2
Weight, kg a 80 (±17.2) 76.3 (±17) 85.6 (±16) 0.05
Weight loss, % c 6.5 (0–32) 10.1 (5–32) 0 (0–4) 0.0001
Fat mass, kg a 20 (±9.6) 18.5 (±9.8) 22.4 (±9.2) 0.17
Total body water, kg a 43.9 (± 6.6) 42.8 (± 6.6) 45.7 (± 6.3) 0.1
ECW/ICW a 0.76(± 0.06) 0.76 (± 0.05) 0.75 (± 0.07) 0.4
BCM, kg a 29.4 (±4.9) 28 (±4.4) 31.5 (± 5.1) 0.014
Phase angle a 5.7 (±1.1) 5.4 (±1.1) 6.3 (±0.9) 0.005
SMI, kg/m2 a 18 (±2.53) 17.9 (±2.47) 18.3 (±2.67) 0.5
SMI < 14.6 kg/m2, n (%) 5 (9.6) 3 (9.6) 2 (9.5) 0.9
Laboratory parameters
eGFR mL/min b 96.7 (79–107) 89.7 (77–109) 103 (86–107) 0.09
CRP mg/dL b 1.1 (0.4–4.1) 2 (0.6–5.5) 0.6 (0.3–1.6) 0.01
CRP > 1 mg/dl, n (%) 27 (52) 19 (61.3) 8 (38.1) 0.1
Albumin g/L b 36.3 (33–41) 33.9 (29–39) 39 (35–41.7) 0.009
Albumin < 35 g/L, n (%) 21 (40.3) 16 (51) 5 (23.8) 0.04
CHE, U/L a 6253 (± 1984) 5629 (± 2072) 7074 (± 1512) 0.009
CHE < 5000 U/L, n (%) 11 (21.2) 10 (32.3) 1 (4.8) 0.02
ALP, U/L b 81.5 (63–102) 84 (72–112) 68 (60–87) 0.03
GGT, U/L b 36 (28–67) 37 (29–79) 31 (22–49) 0.09
Hemoglobin g/dL b 14 (12–15) 13 (12–14) 14.5 (14–15.6) 0.003
Hemoglobin < 12,5 g/dL, n (%) 13 (25) 11 (35.5) 2 (9.5) 0.03
Lymphocytes G/L b 1.5 (1.2–1.9) 1.4 (1–1.9) 1.6 (1.2–2.3) 0.2
  1. Abbreviations: BIA bioimpedance analysis, BMI body mass index, ECW extracellular water, ICW intracellular water, BCM body cell mass, SMI skeletal muscle index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CRP C-reactive protein, CHE cholinesterase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, GGT gamma glutamyl transferase
  2. amean ± SD.
  3. bmedian and interquartile range, 25–75th percentile.
  4. cmedian and minimum/maximum values.
  5. *gastrointestinal (GI) cancer included lower GI (2), higher GI (2), pancreato-biliary (4) tumor; hematological tumor included two myeloma and one chronic lymphocytic leukemia; other were one oropharynx, one mesothelioma and one prostate cancer.