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Table 2 Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression for HCC with and without other cancers included as competing risks in the training cohort

From: Prediction of the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in health screening examinees: a Korean cohort study

  No competing risk Competing risk included
  HR 95% CI p-value HR 95% CI p-value
Agea 1.581 1.540–1.629 < 0.001 1.542 1.493–1.581 < 0.001
Male sex (vs. female) 3.122 2.786–3.496 < 0.001 3.040 2.710–3.401 < 0.001
Family history of chronic liver disease 2.490 2.143–2.893 < 0.001 2.487 2.099–2.948 < 0.001
ALTa 1.049 1.044–1.054 < 0.001 1.048 1.036–1.061 < 0.001
GGTa 1.030 1.027–1.032 < 0.001 1.029 1.026–1.032 < 0.001
Total cholesterola 0.897 0.886–0.908 < 0.001 0.898 0.887–0.910 < 0.001
Chronic liver disease 3.430 3.096–3.800 < 0.001 3.470 3.116–3.863 < 0.001
Chronic hepatitis virus infection 1.851 1.605–2.135 < 0.001 1.862 1.567–2.213 < 0.001
HIV infection 4.097 3.691–4.546 < 0.001 4.057 3.640–4.522 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 1.427 1.257–1.619 < 0.001 1.430 1.255–1.629 < 0.001
Dyslipidemia 0.479 0.382–0.601 < 0.001 0.458 0.359–0.585 < 0.001
Schizophrenic or delusional disorders, or mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use 0.655 0.575–0.747 < 0.001 0.645 0.563–0.738 < 0.001
Overweight (vs. normal) 1.182 1.080–1.294 < 0.001 1.190 1.084–1.308 < 0.001
Obese (vs. normal) 1.648 1.297–2.094 < 0.001 1.662 1.304–2.118 < 0.001
Middle income (vs. low) 0.926 0.836–1.025 0.138 0.925 0.831–1.030 0.150
High income (vs. low) 0.832 0.749–0.925 < 0.001 0.834 0.747–0.931 0.001
  1. HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, ALT alanine aminotransferase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase, HIV human immunodeficiency
  2. aper increment of 10 years, IU/L, or mg/dL