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Table 3 Clinicopathological characteristics of the low PNI group and the high PNI group

From: Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative infectious complications and oncological outcomes after hepatectomy in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Variables All patients (n=316) Low PNI group High PNI group P-value*
PNI <  50 (n=174) PNI ≥ 50 (n=142)
Preoperative factors
 Male, n (%) 187 (59.1%) 100 (57.5%) 87 (61.3%) 0.495
 Age (years), median (IQR) 71 (63–76) 72.5 (66–79) 68 (62–74) 0.002
 BMI, median (IQR) 22.1 (20.0–24.8) 22.0 (19.2–24.0) 22.8 (21.0–25.2) 0.048
 Lymphocytes (/ul), median (IQR) 1560 (1190-1931) 1328 (1058-1625) 1894 (1508-2332) <.0001
 Neutrophils (/ul), median (IQR) 3652 (2834-4908) 3692 (2781-5027) 3634 (2920-4474) 0.759
 Monocytes (/ul), median (IQR) 342 (277–440) 342 (270–436) 342 (281–442) 0.669
 Platelet count (104/uL), median (IQR) 19.9 (15.4–24.5) 19.9 (14.5–25.4) 20.1 (16.8–23.6) 0.827
 Total Bilirubin (mg/dl), median (IQR) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.7 (0.50–0.90) 0.7 (0.54–0.90) 0.698
 Albumin (mg/dl), median (IQR) 4.1 (3.8–4.4) 3.8 (3.5–4.1) 4.3 (4.3–4.6) <0.001
 AST (U/L), median (IQR) 29 (22–39) 29 (22–42) 29 (23–37) 0.978
 ALT (U/L), median (IQR) 25 (16–39) 24 (15–39) 27 (18–38) 0.142
 Prothrombin time (INR), median (IQR) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 1.04 (1.0–1.13) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) <.0001
 Total Cholesterol (mg/dL), median (IQR) 185 (166–211) 180 (156–206) 194 (173–220) 0.015
 HBV-Ag, n (%) 18 (5.7%) 11 (6.3%) 7 (4.9%) 0.595
 HCV-Ab, n (%) 47 (14.9%) 29 (16.7%) 18 (12.7%) 0.321
 CRP (mg/dl), median (IQR) 0.2 (0.09–0.70) 0.3 (0.10–1.04) 0.16 (0.08–0.34) 0.010
 Preoperative chemotherapy, n (%) 7 (2.2%) 6 (3.5%) 1 (0.7%) 0.099
Tumor factor
 Morphology, n (%)
  Mass-forming (MF) 234 (74.5%) 123 (71.1%) 111 (78.7%) 0.260
  Periductal-infiltrating (PI) 30 (9.6%) 16 (9.3%) 14 (9.9%)  
  MF+PI 34 (10.8%) 23 (13.3%) 11 (7.8%)  
  Intraductal Growth 16 (5.1%) 11 (6.3%) 5 (3.6%)  
Tumor size (cm), median (IQR) 4.0 (2.8–6.5) 4.5 (3.0–7.0) 4.0 (2.5–6.0) 0.253
Multi-nodular, n (%) 63 (19.9%) 35 (20.1%) 28 (19.7%) 0.930
 Localization, n (%)
  Hilar 111 (35.1%) 72 (41.4%) 39 (27.5%) 0.010
  Peripheral 205 (64.9%) 102 (58.6%) 103 (72.5%)  
CEA (ng/ml), median (IQR) 2.90 (1.80–5.87) 3.1 (2.0–7.2) 2.8 (1.6–4.7) 0.323
CA19–9 (U/ml), median (IQR) 39.4 (14.3–246.9) 52.1 (15.8–356.2) 26.3 (14.1–127.9) 0.024
Operative factors
 Major hepatectomy, n (%) 222 (70.3%) 128 (73.5%) 94 (66.2%) 0.154
 Type of hepatectomy, n (%)
  Segmentectomy/Sub-segmentectomy 82 (25.9%) 39 (22.4%) 43 (30.3%) 0.196
  Hemihepatectomy 221 (69.9%) 126 (72.4%) 95 (66.9%)  
  Trisectionectomy 13 (4.1%) 9 (5.2%) 4 (2.82%)  
Lymphnode dissection, n (%) 218 (68.9%) 117 (67.2%) 101 (71.1%) 0.458
Bile duct resection, n (%) 82 (25.9%) 53 (30.4%) 29 (20.4%) 0.043
Vascular reconstruction**, n (%) 24 (7.5%) 16 (9.2%) 8 (5.6%) 0.235
Blood loss (ml), median (IQR) 670 (350–1208) 780 (380–1190) 640 (304–1250) 0.499
Operation time (min), median (IQR) 348 (270–448) 354 (271–465) 333 (264–420) 0.228
Pathological factors
 Serosa invasion, n (%) 112 (35.4%) 58 (33.3%) 54 (38.0%) 0.386
 Vascular invasion, n(%) 160 (50.6%) 87 (50.0%) 73 (51.4%) 0.947
 Lymph node metastasis, n(%) 86 (27.2%) 47 (27.0%) 39 (27.5%) 0.528
 Differentiation, n (%)     0.221
  Well 66 (20.9%) 37 (21.3%) 29 (20.4%)  
  Moderate 167 (52.9%) 84 (48.3%) 83 (58.4%)  
  Poorly 58 (18.4%) 36 (20.7%) 22 (15.5%)  
  Un-classified 25 (7.9%) 17 (8.7%) 8 (5.6%)  
 Background liver, n (%)     0.302
  Normal 234 (74.0%) 123 (70.7%) 111 (78.2%)  
  Hepatitis 60 (19.0%) 38 (21.8%) 22 (15.5%)  
  Fibrosis 22 (7.0%) 13 (7.5%) 9 (6.3%)  
Post-operative factors
 Clavien-Dindo classification, n (%)     0.019
  none 205 (64.9%) 103 (59.2%) 102 (71.8%)  
  Grade I-II 45 (14.2%) 24 (13.8%) 21 (14.8%)  
  Grade III-IV 58 (18.4%) 40 (23.0%) 18 (12.7%)  
  Grade V 8 (2.5%) 7 (4.0%) 1 (0.7%)  
All Complication. CD-Grade I-V 111 (35.1%) 71 (40.8%) 40 (28.2%) 0.019
All Complication. CD-Grade III-V 66 (20.9%) 47 (27.0%) 19 (13.4%) 0.003
Infectious Complication. CD-Grade I-V 31 (9.8%) 26 (14.9%) 5 (3.5%) 0.002
Infectious Complication. CD-Grade IIII-V 19 (6.0%) 17 (36.2%) *** 2 (10.5%) *** 0.037
Adjuvant chemotherapy, n (%) 122 (38.6%) 57 (32.7%) 65 (45.7%) 0.018
  1. * Low-PNI group vs High-PNI group
  2. ** reconstruction of portal vein or hepatic artery or hepatic vein or inferior vene cava
  3. *** proportion in complicated cases