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Table 1 Summary of all postoperative complications

From: Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative infectious complications and oncological outcomes after hepatectomy in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Complications Total number (%) Grade of surgical complicationa
None I-II III-IV V
No complications - Grade II (%) 250 (79.1%) 205 (64.8%) 45 (14.2%)   
Grade III-V (%) 66 (20.8%)    59 (18.6%) 7 (2.2%)
Total no. of complications (%) 111 (35.2%)     
Cardiovascular
 heart failure 2 (0.6%)   1 (0.3%) 1 (0.3%)  
 deep venous thrombosis 2 (0.6%)   2 (0.6%)   
Pulmonary
 pleural effusion 4 (1.3%)   2 (0.6%) 2 (0.6%)  
 pneumonia 1 (0.3%)   1 (0.3%)   
Gastrointestinal
 gastrointestinal hemorrhage 4 (1.3%)   2 (0.6%) 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.3%)
 delayed gastric empting 15 (4.7%)   14 (4.4%) 1 (0.3%)  
 intestinal obstruction 5 (1.6%)   2 (0.6%) 3 (0.9%)  
Surgical site infections
 superficial-deep wound 8 (2.5%)   7 (2.2%) 1 (0.3%)  
 intra-abdominal abscess 16 (5.1%)   1 (0.3%) 14 (4.4%) 1 (0.3%)
Liver/Biliary
 bile leak 37 (11.7%)   6 (1.9%) 31 (9.8%)  
 portal vein thrombosis 4 (1.3%)     4 (1.3%)
 anastomotic leak 1 (0.3%)    1 (0.3%)  
Others
 intra-abdominal hemorrhage 3 (0.9%)   1 (0.3%) 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.3%)
 sepsis 3 (0.9%)   2 (0.6%) 1 (0.3%)  
 ascites 6 (1.9%)   4 (1.3%) 2 (0.6%)  
  1. aClavien-Dindo classification