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Table 2 Proportion of tuberculosis (TB) and cancer risk in patients stratified by tumor site

From: Cancer risk in tuberculosis patients in a high endemic area

Cancer type (N.) Total Male Female
N. of TB % Adjusted OR*
(95% CI)
N. of TB % Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)
N. of TB % Adjusted ORa
(95% CI)
Benign tumor (n = 12,916) 175 1.35 Reference 26 3.27 Reference 149 1.23 Reference
Malignant cancers (n = 32,539) 1776 5.46 1.68 (1.43–1.97) 861 6.93 1.12 (0.79–1.60) 915 4.55 1.83 (1.53–2.19)
Lung cancer (n = 3968) 223 5.62 1.44 (1.06–1.95) 165 6.48 1.27 (0.83–1.94) 58 4.08 1.57 (1.04–2.37)
Adenocarcinoma (n = 2046) 91 4.45 2.05 (1.43–2.95) 59 5.58 1.72 (1.06–2.81) 32 3.34 2.09 (1.28–3.41)
Squamous cell carcinoma (n = 763) 57 7.47 1.35 (0.82–2.22) 50 7.37 1.53 (0.90–2.62) 7 8.24 NA
Small cell (n = 497) 25 5.03 NA 22 5.66 NA 3 2.78 NA
Other (n = 662) 50 7.55 1.38 (0.87–2.18) 34 8.04 1.44 (0.81–2.57) 16 6.69 NA
Extrapulmonary tumor (n = 28,571) 1553 5.44 1.72 (1.46–2.02) 696 7.05 1.17 (0.82–1.68) 857 4.59 1.88 (1.57–2.24)
CNS (n = 287) 11 3.83 NA 6 3.33 NA 5 4.67 NA
Thyroid (n = 4784) 37 0.77 0.30 (.021–0.44) 6 0.57 NA 31 0.83 0.42 (0.28–0.62)
Head and neck (n = 799) 53 6.63 1.52 (1.01–2.30) 35 6.52 1.09 (0.66–1.81) 18 6.87 NA
Digestive (n = 8722) 641 7.35 1.33 (1.05–1.68) 476 8.10 1.17 (0.80–1.70) 165 5.80 1.41 (1.05–1.88)
Esophagus (n = 1611) 241 14.96 2.23 (1.65–3.02) 185 16.53 2.49 (1.64–3.79) 56 11.38 1.91 (1.24–2.95)
Gastric-esophageal junction (n = 522) 46 8.81 0.80 (0.48–1.33) 38 8.70 0.69 (0.39–1.22) 8 9.41 NA
Stomach (n = 2055) 141 6.86 1.12 (0.80–1.56) 111 7.58 1.04 (0.68–1.60) 30 5.08 1.20 (0.76–1.90)
Colon, rectum and anus (n = 2424) 124 5.12 0.74 (0.53–1.03) 83 5.79 0.69 (0.44–1.08) 41 4.14 0.85 (0.55–1.29)
Liver (n = 1316) 53 4.03 0.50 (0.32–0.79) 41 4.05 0.53 (0.32–0.87) 12 3.96 NA
Biliary tract (n = 369) 19 5.15 NA 8 5.44 NA 11 4.95 NA
Pancreas (n = 425) 17 4.00 NA 10 3.82 NA 7 4.29 NA
Hematologic malignancies (n = 894) 140 15.66 4.88 (3.66–6.51) 88 18.14 4.07 (2.66–6.21) 52 12.71 4.87 (3.39–7.01)
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 675) 113 16.74 4.57 (3.35–6.24) 71 19.72 4.27 (2.74–6.66) 42 13.33 4.21 (2.80–6.33)
Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 122) 20 16.39 NA 12 18.46 NA 8 14.04 NA
Multiple myeloma (n = 87) 6 6.90 NA 4 7.41 NA 2 6.06 NA
Leukemia (n = 10) 1 10.00 NA 1 16.67 NA 0 0.00 NA
Genitourinary (n = 5711) 389 6.81 2.22 (1.82–2.70) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Cervix (n = 2839) 261 9.19 3.49 (2.79–4.38) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Uterus (n = 780) 22 2.82 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Ovary (n = 1045) 56 5.36 1.88 (1.33–2.64) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Prostate (n = 277) 16 5.78 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Bladder (n = 314) 17 5.41 NA 14 6.06 NA 3 3.61 NA
Kidney (n = 456) 17 3.73 NA 13 4.59 NA 4 2.31 NA
Skin cancer (n = 491) 32 6.52 0.84 (0.51–1.37) 15 6.05 NA 17 7.00 NA
Melanoma (n = 174) 12 6.90 NA 6 7.06 NA 6 6.74 NA
Nonmelanoma (n = 317) 20 6.31 NA 9 5.52 NA 11 7.14 NA
Bone and soft tissue (n = 718) 21 2.92 NA 9 2.59 NA 13 3.50 NA
Breast (n = 5443) 171 3.14 1.29 (1.02–1.62) 0 0.00 NA 171 3.16 1.36 (1.08–1.73)
Unknown primary (n = 181) 16 8.84 NA 8 8.16 NA 8 9.64 NA
Other* (n = 541) 42 7.76 1.93 (1.28–2.90) 10 4.46 NA 32 10.09 2.41 (1.53–3.80)
  1. Notes: NA not applicable, N number
  2. *, this category included cancers originating from the testis, vulva, penis, vagina, labia majora, labia minora, perineum, scrotum, hydatidiform mole, chorion, notochord, adrenal cortex, neuroendocrine system, mediastinum, sweat glands, mesothelium, thymus, umbilical tube and so on
  3. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; CNS, central nervous system;
  4. *The OR was adjusted by sex and age (as a continuous variable)
  5. a The OR was adjusted by age (as a continuous variable)