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Table 1 Demographic Information of the Study Subjects Enrolled in a Population-based Case-control Study of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Taixing, China, 2010–2013, stratified by gender

From: A nomogram for screening esophageal squamous cell carcinoma based on environmental risk factors in a high-incidence area of China: a population-based case-control study

Variables Men Women P value for comparing male and female controls b
Controls (N=1373)
N (%)
Cases (N=962)
N (%)
P value a Controls (N=619)
N (%)
Cases (N=456)
N (%)
P value a
Age at interview (mean±SD, years) 65.6±8.4 65.3±8.5 0.228 67.6±9.4 69.4±7.6 0.024 0.0001
Age group
 40-49 53 (3.86) 30 (3.12) 0.134 29 (4.68) 5 (1.1) <0.001 <0.001
 50-59 277 (20.17) 215 (22.35)   90 (14.54) 35 (7.68)   
 60-69 586 (42.68) 417 (43.35)   209 (33.76) 187 (41.01)   
 70-79 407 (29.64) 252 (26.2)   237 (38.29) 187 (41.01)   
 80-84 50 (3.64) 48 (4.99)   54 (8.72) 42 (9.21)   
Marital status
 Unmarried 63 (4.59) 55 (5.72) 0.278 5 (0.81) 2 (0.44) 0.575 <0.001
 Married 1160 (84.49) 790 (82.12)   428 (69.14) 307 (67.32)   
 Divorced/Widowed 150 (10.92) 117 (12.16)   186 (30.05) 147 (32.24)   
Occupation
 Farmer 713 (51.93) 517 (53.74) 0.673 547 (88.37) 431 (94.52) 0.002 <0.001
 Worker 356 (25.93) 243 (25.26)   45 (7.27) 17 (3.73)   
 Service/Clerk/Professional/Administrator 304 (22.14) 202 (21)   27 (4.36) 8 (1.75)   
Education
 Illiteracy 171 (12.45) 169 (17.57) 0.002 369 (59.61) 329 (72.15) <0.001 <0.001
 Primary school 589 (42.9) 419 (43.56)   171 (27.63) 109 (23.9)   
 Junior high school 463 (33.72) 285 (29.63)   67 (10.82) 16 (3.51)   
 High school and above 150 (10.92) 89 (9.25)   12 (1.94) 2 (0.44)   
Family wealth score
 Q1-lowest 288 (20.98) 282 (29.31) <0.001 120 (19.39) 122 (26.75) 0.024 0.351
 Q2 234 (17.04) 166 (17.26)   119 (19.22) 89 (19.52)   
 Q3 289 (21.05) 216 (22.45)   145 (23.42) 106 (23.25)   
 Q4 297 (21.63) 178 (18.5)   132 (21.32) 84 (18.42)   
 Q5 265 (19.3) 120 (12.47)   103 (16.64) 55 (12.06)   
BMI at 10 years ago
 <18.5 (Underweight) 57 (4.15) 71 (7.38) <0.001 53 (8.56) 61 (13.38) 0.005 <0.001
 18.5-24) (Normal) 864 (62.93) 652 (67.78)   341 (55.09) 251 (55.04)   
 [24, 28) (Overweight) 367 (26.73) 195 (20.27)   178 (28.76) 127 (27.85)   
 ≥ 28 (Obese) 83 (6.05) 41 (4.26)   46 (7.43) 16 (3.51)   
 Missing 2 (0.15) 3 (0.31)   1 (0.16) 1 (0.22)   
Adult height (cm, male | female)
 ≤ 162 | ≤ 152 500 (36.42) 164 (17.05) <0.001 244 (39.42) 66 (14.47) <0.001 <0.001
 (162, 170] | (152, 156] 637 (46.39) 513 (53.33)   153 (24.72) 154 (33.77)   
 (170-174] | (156, 160] 118 (8.59) 131 (13.62)   141 (22.78) 152 (33.33)   
 >174 | >160 116 (8.45) 151 (15.7)   80 (12.92) 83 (18.2)   
 Missing 2 (0.15) 3 (0.31)   1 (0.16) 1 (0.22)   
Frequency of tooth brushing per day
 < 2 903 (65.77) 758 (78.79) <0.001 387 (62.52) 352 (77.19) <0.001 0.141
 ≥ 2 452 (32.92) 174 (18.09)   225 (36.35) 87 (19.08)   
 Missing 18 (1.31) 30 (3.12)   7 (1.13) 17 (3.73)   
Sum of missing and filled teeth
 None 370 (26.95) 245 (25.47) 0.177 130 (21.00) 59 (12.94) 0.001 <0.001
 < 6 514 (37.44) 327 (33.99)   203 (32.79) 132 (28.95)   
 ≥ 6 471 (34.3) 358 (37.21)   278 (44.91) 240 (52.63)   
 Missing 18 (1.31) 32 (3.33)   8 (1.29) 25 (5.48)   
Smoking pack-years
 Never 299 (21.78) 153 (15.9) <0.001 585 (94.51) 413 (90.57) 0.875 <0.001
 ≤ 30 522 (38.02) 327 (33.99)   20 (3.23) 15 (3.29)   
 > 30 531 (38.67) 438 (45.53)   4 (0.65) 4 (0.88)   
 Missing 21 (1.53) 44 (4.57)   10 (1.62) 24 (5.26)   
Alcohol drinking intensity (g/day)
 Never 584 (42.53) 235 (24.43) <0.001 574 (92.73) 400 (87.72) 0.306 <0.001
 ≤ 80 373 (27.17) 289 (30.04)   31 (5.01) 31 (6.8)   
 > 80 395 (28.77) 397 (41.27)   3 (0.48) 1 (0.22)   
 Missing 21 (1.53) 41 (4.26)   11 (1.78) 24 (5.26)   
Tea drinking temperature
 Never 858 (62.49) 493 (51.25) <0.001 578 (93.38) 420 (92.11) 0.199 <0.001
 Warm 206 (15) 150 (15.59)   19 (3.07) 11 (2.41)   
 Hot 213 (15.51) 176 (18.3)   8 (1.29) 1 (0.22)   
 Very Hot 76 (5.54) 102 (10.6)   4 (0.65) 2 (0.44)   
 Missing 20 (1.46) 41 (4.26)   10 (1.62) 22 (4.82)   
Family history of esophageal cancer among first-degree relatives
 No 1106 (80.55) 632 (65.7) <0.001 499 (80.61) 296 (64.91) <0.001 0.905
 Yes 252 (18.35) 298 (30.98)   112 (18.09) 141 (30.92)   
 Missing 15 (1.09) 32 (3.33)   8 (1.29) 19 (4.17)   
Number of risk factors c
 0 risk factor 8 (0.58) 0 (0) <0.001 1 (0.16) 0 (0) <0.001 <0.001
 1 risk factor 48 (3.5) 13 (1.35)   7 (1.13) 1 (0.22)   
 2 risk factors 167 (12.16) 34 (3.53)   32 (5.17) 5 (1.1)   
 3 risk factors 335 (24.4) 116 (12.06)   81 (13.09) 16 (3.51)   
 4 risk factors 402 (29.28) 223 (23.18)   184 (29.73) 72 (15.79)   
 5 risk factors 263 (19.16) 267 (27.75)   197 (31.83) 153 (33.55)   
 6 risk factors 96 (6.99) 198 (20.58)   94 (15.19) 133 (29.17)   
 7 risk factors 22 (1.6) 50 (5.2)   10 (1.62) 47 (10.31)   
 8 risk factors 2 (0.15) 11 (1.14)   4 (0.65) 2 (0.44)   
 Missing 30 (2.18) 50 (5.2)   9 (1.45) 27 (5.92)   
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, N number, BMI body mass index
  2. a P values were derived using Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables and Chi-squared test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables, after excluding the corresponding missing values
  3. b P values were for comparisons between male and female controls
  4. c risk factor were defined as low education level (illiteracy, primary school), family wealth score (Q1, Q2, Q3), BMI (underweight), tooth brushing times (< 2), smoking pack-years (> 0), alcohol consumption intensity (> 0), tea drinking temperature (hot, very hot), and family history of esophageal cancer among first-degree relatives (yes), occupation (farmer), sum of missing and filled teeth (> 0), which were defined based on results from univariate analysis (P < 0.05)