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Table 2 Literature review of the impact of PSMA PET on primary staging of patients with prostate cancer

From: Phase 3 multicenter randomized trial of PSMA PET/CT prior to definitive radiation therapy for unfavorable intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer [PSMA dRT]: study protocol

Author and year Study Design Location N Population Median PSA ng/mL (range) Improvement with PSMA PET
Budäus et al. 2016 [48] R Hamburg, Germany 30 HR PCa prior to RP 8.8 (1.4–376) Se 33%, spec 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 69%
Calais et al. 2018 [45] P Los Angeles, USA 73 IR/HR PCa prior to RT planning 13.9 (0.22–909) 9.5% uptaged to M1
Demirkol et al. 2015 [49] R Istanbul, Turkey 8 HR PCa for staging 15 (0.3–20) N/A
Fendler et al. 2016 [50] R Munich, Germany 21 PCa for staging N/A Se 67%, spec 92%, PPV 97%, NPV 42% Acc 72%
Frenzel et al. 2018 [51] R Hamburg, Germany 20 PCa prior to RT planning 7.1 (0.48–137) N/A
Herlemann et al. 2016 [52] R Munich, Germany 20 HR PCa prior to RP a56 (3.3–363) Se 84%, spec 82%, PPV 84%, NPV 82%
Hijazi et al. 2015 [53] R Göttingen, Germany 12 PCa for staging 48 (6–90) Se 94%, spec 99%, PPV 89%, NPV 99.5%
Hirmas et al. 2018 [54] R Amman, Jordan 21 HR PCa for staging 38 (0.6- > 100) Se 85% Acc 85.7%, PPV 100%
Hruby et al. 2018 [55] R NSW, Australia 109 IR/HR PCa prior to EBRT 9.9 (1.23–240) 21% upstaged, 3% downstaged
Kabasakal et al. 2015 [56] R Istanbul, Turkey 15 PCa for staging 37.78 (5.12–70.47) N/A
Maurer et al. 2015 [57] R Munich, Germany 130 HR PCa prior to RP 11.6 (0.57–244) Se 68%, spec 99%, PPV 95%, NPV 94%
Rahbar et al. 2015 [58] P Münster, Germany 6 HR PCa prior to RP 52.7 (5.7–111.1) Se 92%, spec 92%, PPV 96%, NPV 85%
Rhee et al. 2016 [59] P Queensland, Australia 20 PCa prior to RP 6.1 (3.5–45) Se 49%, spec 95%, PPV 85% NPV 88%
Roach et al. 2017 [44] P Sydney, Australia 108 IR/HR PCa for staging 8.6 (0.18–120) 20% upstaged, 1% downstaged
Sachpekidis et al. 2016 [60] P Heidelberg, Germany 24 HR PCa 24.1 (3.2–200) N/A
Schwenck et al. 2016 [61] P Tübingen, Germany 20 HR PCa for staging, PSMA vs choline 26 (N/A) N/A
Sterzing et al. 2016 [62] R Heidelberg, Germany 15 HR PCa for staging 7 (0.28–45) 13.7% changed their TNM staging
Uprimny et al. 2017 [63] R Innsbruck, Austria 90 PCa, other analysis 9.7 (2.2–188.4) N/A
Van Leeuwen et al. 2017 [64] P Sydney, Australia 30 IR/HR PCa prior to RP 8.1 (5.2–10.1) Se 58%, spec 100%, PPV 94%, NPV 98%
Zamboglou et al. 2015 [65] R Freiburg, Germany 22 PCa prior to RT planning 20.4 (1.22–66.9) GTV-PET larger than GTV-MRI
  1. aValue for mean reported, not median. GTV gross tumor volume, HR High-risk, IR intermediate-risk, LND lymph node dissection, N/A not applicable, NPV negative predictive value, P prospective study, PPV positive predictive value, R retrospective study, RP radical prostatectomy, RT radiotherapy, Se Sensitivity, spec specificity