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Table 4 Pooled relative risk of secondary outcomes based on combined direct and indirect evidence from Bayesian network meta-analysis with different prophylaxis antifungal agents against IFIs among patients at high risk

From: Network meta-analysis of triazole, polyene, and echinocandin antifungal agents in invasive fungal infection prophylaxis in patients with hematological malignancies

Comparisons IA-related IFIs IC-related IFIs All-cause mortality IFI-related mortality AEs Withdrawal due to AEs Empirical treatment Successful treatment
Compared with fluconazole
 Itraconazole 0.65 (0.37–1.07) 0.55 (0.12–1.47) 1.08 (0.76–1.43) 0.59 (0.23–1.17) 2.37 (0.98–5.08) 2.30 (0.89–5.09) 1.26 (0.49–2.73) 1.41 (0.65–3.13)
 Posaconazole 0.08 (0.010.27) 26.57 (0.17–68.36) 0.35 (0.080.96) 1.08 (0.00–5.32) 1.55 (0.34–4.36) 6.58 (1.0718.26) 0.55 (0.05–2.07) 1.47 (0.53–3.15)
 Voriconazole 0.45 (0.13–1.07) 202.6 (0.18–42.07) 0.78 (0.42–1.32) n.e. 3.78 (0.96–11.32) 81.54 (0.04–3.19) 0.80 (0.23–1.99) 2.19 (0.83–5.18)
 Amphotericin B 1.16 (0.39–2.55) 0.87 (0.08–2.71) 1.05 (0.66–1.53) 0.99 (0.25–2.71) 4.15 (1.2012.08) 6.18 (0.91–11.04) 0.96 (0.21–2.54) 0.95 (0.53–1.78)
 Caspofungin 0.73 (0.10–2.47) 20.85 (0.02–12.12) 1.03 (0.24–2.83) 2.51 (0.09–12.74) 1.37 (0.11–5.42) 6.30 (0.11–5.02) 1.67 (0.19–5.47) 1.89 (0.40–5.38)
 Micafungin 1.27 (0.25–3.94) 1.41 (0.00–8.44) 0.84 (0.34–1.85) 0.67 (0.02–3.04) 0.12 (0.000.61) n.e. n.e. 2.53 (0.81, 5.80)
 Placebo 1.36 (0.60–2.66) 3.30 (0.77–8.54) 1.17 (0.81–1.6) 1.80 (0.62–3.86) 0.02 (0.000.03) 2.16 (0.79–4.86) 1.85 (0.54–4.77) 1.01 (0.55–2.02)
Compared with itraconazole
 Posaconazole 0.13 (0.010.44) 254.7 (0.34–210.7) 0.33 (0.070.94) 2.44 (0.00–10.53) 0.73 (0.14–2.21) 7.20 (0.48–9.10) 0.56 (0.04–2.22) 1.24 (0.28–3.03)
 Voriconazole 0.72 (0.20–1.75) 508.9 (0.38–122.2) 0.73 (0.43–1.17) n.e. 1.75 (0.42–5.19) 21.0 (0.02–1.40) 0.67 (0.23–1.51) 1.58 (0.77–2.79)
 Amphotericin B 1.88 (0.59–4.28) 2.14 (0.18–7.41) 0.99 (0.62–1.49) 1.89 (0.43–5.75) 1.91 (0.53–5.66) 2.10 (0.52–4.22) 0.79 (0.22–1.83) 0.73 (0.37–1.25)
 Caspofungin 1.17 (0.16–4.04) 256.1 (0.07–23.31) 0.96 (0.23–2.59) 4.26 (0.19–21.65) 0.70 (0.04–2.90) 1.08 (0.06–1.93) 1.58 (0.13–5.89) 1.20 (0.37–2.94)
 Micafungin 2.12 (0.36–6.92) 6.64 (0.01–22.84) 0.80 (0.29–1.86) 1.43 (0.04–6.53) 0.06 (0.000.29) n.e. n.e. 2.12 (0.43–5.55)
 Placebo 2.18 (0.94–4.36) 8.27 (1.5126.57) 1.11 (0.73–1.59) 3.39 (1.078.30) 0.01 (0.000.02) 1.01 (0.42–2.02) 1.54 (0.55–3.52) 0.77 (0.42–1.34)
Compared with posaconazole
 Voriconazole 15.07 (1.0976.67) 189.5 (0.02–46.78) 3.34 (0.67–10.58) n.e. 3.77 (0.49–14.80) 625.1 (0.01–1.08) 4.33 (0.24–16.63) 1.88 (0.44–5.71)
 Amphotericin B 38.32 (2.97184.9) 0.94 (0.00–5.56) 4.49 (1.0413.86) 136.8 (0.13–579.6) 4.38 (0.61–16.00) 19.4 (0.12–4.10) 12.71 (0.24–19.62) 0.81 (0.25–2.23)
 Caspofungin 24.43 (0.98–139.1) 6.18 (0.00–11.56) 4.34 (0.54–16.84) 504.4 (0.10–1102.0) 1.59 (0.06–6.46) 2.66 (0.02–1.59) 86.88 (0.25–37.39) 1.73 (0.23–5.55)
 Micafungin 41.39 (2.43212.8) 0.73 (0.00–4.27) 3.23 (0.85–9.95) 18.94 (0.13–90.85) 0.07 (0.00– –0.37) n.e. n.e. 1.89 (0.65–4.35)
 Placebo 44.78 (4.08218.0) 3.67 (0.03–19.83) 4.98 (1.1615.28) 247.5 (0.7–1074.0) 0.02 (0.000.03) 0.95 (0.09–2.10) 10.07 (0.59–39.75) 0.86 (0.27–2.47)
Compared with voriconazole
 Amphotericin B 3.42 (0.66–10.49) 1.30 (0.01–4.60) 1.45 (0.71–2.56) n.e. 1.35 (0.36–3.87) 14.84 (1.4048.77) 1.38 (0.33–3.58) 0.50 (0.22–1.01)
 Caspofungin 2.19 (0.20–9.42) 5.68 (0.00–11.71) 1.41 (0.31–3.99) n.e. 0.53 (0.02–2.33) 72.68 (0.13–27.56) 3.44 (0.20–11.09) 0.85 (0.21–2.45)
 Micafungin 3.95 (0.47–14.71) 1.89 (0.00–7.79) 1.18 (0.37–2.91) n.e. 0.05 (0.000.23) n.e. n.e. 1.47 (0.27–4.18)
 Placebo 3.99 (0.97–1.77) 3.81 (0.05–17.34) 1.62 (0.82–2.84) n.e. 0.005 (0.000.01) 18.98 (0.65–40.86) 2.81 (0.72–7.96) 0.54 (0.23–1.14)
Compared with amphotericin B
 Caspofungin 0.79 (0.08–3.19) 60.34 (0.04–32.83) 1.02 (0.23–3.09) 4.69 (0.09–18.36) 0.51 (0.02–1.91) 0.92 (0.03–1.78) 2.89 (0.17–11.45) 1.89 (0.46–4.99)
 Micafungin 1.41 (0.19–5.25) 6.90 (0.01–21.80) 0.84 (0.30–1.96) 1.01 (0.02–5.01) 0.04 (0.000.19) n.e. n.e. 2.95 (0.71–7.23)
 Placebo 1.45 (0.39–4.01) 8.07 (0.83–33.43) 1.15 (0.71–1.77) 2.47 (0.53–7.03) 0.004 (0.000.01) 0.79 (0.22–1.79) 2.36 (0.76–6.55) 1.10 (0.65–1.83)
Compared with caspofungin
 Micafungin 3.43 (0.23–15.46) 38.0 (0.00–45.54) 1.21 (0.20–4.19) 1.78 (0.01–8.50) 0.66 (0.00–1.35) n.e. n.e. 2.43 (0.28–7.80)
 Placebo 3.56 (0.44–13.41) 185.0 (0.19–117.2) 1.66 (0.39–4.83) 3.78 (0.11–18.72) 0.05 (0.000.42) 38.59 (0.40–17.52) 2.96 (0.22–11.86) 0.87 (0.22–2.37)
Compared with micafungin
 Placebo 1.79 (0.27–5.89) 435.6 (0.27–743.0) 1.67 (0.59–3.60) 15.13 (0.42–75.43) 1.39 (0.00–1.52) n.e. n.e. 0.53 (0.15–1.60)
  1. The column treatment is compared with the row treatment (i.e., row treatment is the reference for each comparison). Numbers in parentheses indicate 95% credible interval. Numbers in bold represent statistically significant results
  2. AEs Adverse events, IA invasive Aspergillus infections, IC invasive Candida, IFIs invasive fungal infections, n.e. not estimated