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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analysis of each factor’s ability to predict CSS of lung carcinoid tumors

From: Prognostic nomogram for predicting long-term cancer-specific survival in patients with lung carcinoid tumors

Characteristic CSS
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Age at diagnosis
  < 60 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
  ≥ 60 2.384 (1.714–3.316) 0.000 2.277 (1.587–3.267) 0.000
Race
 White 1 (reference)  
 Others 1.389 (0.885–2.179) 0.153   
Gender
 Female 1 (reference)    
 Male 1.226 (0.894–1.681) 0.205    
Insurance
 Yes 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 No 1.736 (1.221–2.466) 0.002 1.850 (1.288–2.658) 0.001
Marital status
 Married 1 (reference)  
 Un-married 1.072 (0.785–1.465) 0.662   
Primary site
 Main bronchus 1 (reference)  
 Upper lobe, lung 2.200 (0.954–5.071) 0.064   
 Middle lobe, lung 0.680 (0.251–1.839) 0.447   
 Lower lobe, lung 1.779 (0.771–4.105) 0.177   
 Overlapping lesion of lung 1.511 (0.377–6.050) 0.560   
 Lung, NOS 2.754 (0.925–8.205) 0.069   
Grade
 Well 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 Moderately/Pooly/Undifferentiated 4.48 (3.252–6.171) 0.000 2.182 (1.537–3.098) 0.000
Laterality
 Right 1 (reference)  
 Other 1.179 (0.866–1.606) 0.295   
Historic Stage
 Localized 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 Regional/Distant/Unstaged 4.833 (3.505–6.665) 0.000 1.529 (0.877–2.665) 0.134
Histological type
 Typical carcinoid 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Atypical carcinoid 4.767 (3.462–6.564) 0.000 1.962 (1.340–2.872) 0.001
T stage
 T1 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 T2-T4 3.228 (2.308–4.514) 0.000 1.142 (0.732–1.784) 0.558
N stage
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 N1-N3 4.979 (3.658–6.778) 0.000 1.606 (1.025–2.515) 0.039
M stage
 M0 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 M1 9.292 (6.648–12.99) 0.000 1.892 (1.142–3.135) 0.013
Surgery
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Lobectomy 0.116 (0.081–0.166) 0.000 0.332 (0.208–0.532) 0.000
 Local resection/destrubition 0.038 (0.009–0.155) 0.000 0.148 (0.035–0.627) 0.010
 Wedge resection 0.178 (0.105–0.302) 0.000 0.675 (0.366–1.244) 0.207
 Pneumonectomy 0.020 (0.108–0.382) 0.000 0.260 (0.122–0.557) 0.001
 Surgery, NOS 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.993 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.993
Radiation
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 Yes 7.591 (5.331–10.81) 0.000 1.796 (1.028–3.139) 0.040
Chemotherapy
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 7.854 (5.563–11.09) 0.000 1.332 (0.859–2.064) 0.201
Radiation after surgery
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 Yes 3.981 (2.433–6.515) 0.000 0.667 (0.318–1.401) 0.285
Tumor size
  < 20 mm 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 20-40 mm 2.102 (1.388–3.184) 0.000 1.660 (1.071–2.574) 0.023
  > 40 mm 6.473 (4.190–9.999) 0.000 3.206 (1.867–5.508) 0.000