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Table 4 Uni- and multivariate analysis for poor disease specific survival

From: High tumor budding is a strong predictor of poor prognosis in the resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients regardless of neoadjuvant therapy, showing survival similar to those without resection

FactorsUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)p valueHazard Ratio (95% CI)p value
Patient age (≥70 years)0.742 (0.385–1.430)0.373  
Gender (male)0.779 (0.408–1.486)0.779  
Pre-operative CEA level (≥ 5 ng/ml)2.071 (1.021–4.199)0.0440.531 (0.241–1.319)0.173
Pre-operative CA 19–9 level (≥ 100 U/ml)1.479 (0.767–2.852)0.243  
Histological grade: G33.350 (1.514–7.414)0.0031.145 (0.433–3.025)0.785
T stage: T42.366 (1.258–4.452)0.0081.221 (0.598–2.492)0.584
N stage: N1 or N22.111 (1.115–3.994)0.0222.354 (1.010–5.487)0.047
M stage: M19.524 (3.434–26.411)< 0.0011.655 (0.481–5.689)0.424
Lymphovascular invasion7.654 (2.349–24.937)0.0015.307 (1.530–18.413)0.009
Perinueral invasion28.161 (0.546–1451.390)0.097  
Non-curative resection2.792 (1.471–5.299)0.0022.456 (1.116–5.408)0.026
High TB4.493 (2.276–8.870)< 0.0015.206 (1.985–13.655)0.001
  1. Regional lymph node metastasis, lyphovascular invasion, non-curative resection, and High TB were identified as independent poor prognostic factors for DSS