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Table 1 Description of 36 associations of coffee intake and cancer incidence included in umbrella review

From: Coffee drinking and cancer risk: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies

     Summary relative risk (95% CI)P value 
Author, yearCancer typeUnit of comparisonNo of studiesNo. of casesFixed-effects modelRandom-effects modelLargest studyFixed-effects modelRandom-effects model95% PI
Thomopoulos, 2015 [20]Acute lymphocytic leukemiaH/L724531.43 (1.22, 1.68)1.44 (1.21, 1.71)1.30 (1.00, 1.70)9.28E-062.9E-05(1.09, 1.91)
Thomopoulos, 2015 [20]Acute myelogenous leukemiaH/L63331.76 (1.17, 2.63)1.78 (0.87, 3.65)2.40 (1.30, 4.30)0.0060.115(0.17, 18.39)
Godos, 2017 [4]Biliary tract cancerH/L57260.91 (0.69, 1.20)0.91 (0.69, 1.20)0.94 (0.64, 1.37)0.0060.115(0.58, 1.43)
Wu, 2015 [24]Bladder cancerH/L3016,1721.29 (1.19, 1.39)1.35 (1.20, 1.50)1.00 (0.83, 1.21)8.89E-111.54E-07(0.90, 2.00)
Jiang, 2013 [9]Breast cancerH/L3456,5410.97 (0.93, 1.01)0.97 (0.93, 1.01)0.98 (0.91, 1.07)0.0890.089(0.93, 1.01)
Gan, 2017 [3]Colon cancerH/L1613,8530.91 (0.84, 0.98)0.92 (0.83, 1.02)0.92 (0.80, 1.06)0.0110.097(0.72, 1.18)
Li, 2013 [13]Colorectal cancerH/L4025,9650.89 (0.85, 0.94)0.88 (0.81, 0.96)0.90 (0.80, 1.02)1.37E-050.003(0.59, 1.30)
Lukic, 2018 [8]Endometrial cancerH/L1913,8120.79 (0.74, 0.84)0.75 (0.70, 0.82)0.92 (0.82, 1.03)2.67E-142.90E-11(0.60, 0.93)
Zheng, 2013 [28]Esophageal cancerH/L1435750.90 (0.81, 1.00)0.84 (0.72, 0.98)1.13 (0.92, 1.37)0.0470.028(0.55, 1.29)
Botelho, 2006 [1]Gastric cancerH/L2356110.96 (0.88, 1.06)0.97 (0.86, 1.09)0.93 (0.72, 1.21)0.4220.593(0.67, 1.40)
Malerba, 2013 [15]GliomaH/L62551.01 (0.83, 1.22)1.01 (0.83, 1.22)0.98 (0.67, 1.41)0.9430.943(0.77, 1.32)
Wijarnpreecha, 2017 [23]Kidney cancerH/L2211,0871.00 (0.92, 1.09)0.99 (0.89, 1.11)1.33 (1.07, 1.66)0.9710.909(0.71, 1.38)
Ouyang, 2014 [16]Laryngeal cancerH/L825961.05 (0.94, 1.18)1.18 (0.87, 1.59)0.90 (0.80, 1.10)0.3970.284(0.47, 2.93)
Thomopoulos, 2015 [20]LeukemiaH/L623031.41 (1.19, 1.66)1.57 (1.16, 2.11)1.10 (0.90, 1.50)5.27E-050.003(0.69, 3.56)
Sang, 2013 [17]Liver cancerH/L1636220.50 (0.42, 0.59)0.48 (0.40, 0.58)0.70 (0.50, 1.00)2.77E-168.84E-15(0.35, 0.67)
Galarraga, 2016 [2]Lung cancerH/L2119,8921.08 (1.06, 1.11)1.26 (1.13, 1.41)1.04 (1.01, 1.07)1.84E-114.7E-05(0.82, 1.93)
Han, 2016 [6]LymphomaH/L715131.05 (0.90, 1.23)1.08 (0.76, 1.53)1.11 (0.90, 1.37)0.5510.659(0.38, 3.05)
Yew, 2016 [27]MelanomaH/L1137870.76 (0.69, 0.84)0.75 (0.65, 0.87)0.80 (0.69, 0.93)1.39E-080.000151(0.50, 1.12)
Vaseghi, 2016 [22]NonmelanomaH/L6104,7700.86 (0.80, 0.93)0.87 (0.78, 0.98)0.83 (0.75, 0.92)0.0001110.021(0.67, 1.13)
Li, 2016 [11]Oral cancerH/L1550210.63 (0.57, 0.71)0.63 (0.52, 0.75)0.51 (0.40, 0.64)7.3E-163.79E-07(0.36, 1.09)
Miranda, 2017 [15]Oral/Pharyngeal cancerH/L1751510.72 (0.64, 0.82)0.69 (0.57, 0.84)0.60 (0.45, 0.80)5.26E-070.000281(0.37, 1.29)
Steevens, 2007 [18]Ovarian cancerH/L1554791.11 (0.98, 1.27)1.18 (0.97, 1.44)0.93 (0.69, 1.26)0.1150.101(0.63, 2.19)
Turati, 2012 [21]Pancreatic cancerH/L5410,5941.14 (1.05, 1.24)1.13 (0.99, 1.29)0.95 (0.73, 1.23)0.0020.063(0.59, 2.16)
Xia, 2017 [26]Prostate cancerH/L2742,3991.02 (0.96, 1.07)1.07 (0.96, 1.18)0.94 (0.87, 1.02)0.5850.228(0.74, 1.53)
Gan, 2017 [3]Rectal cancerH/L1562001.07 (0.97, 1.18)1.06 (0.95, 1.19)1.20 (1.00, 1.44)0.1850.285(0.86, 1.31)
Han, 2017 [5]Thyroid cancerH/L710390.91 (0.74, 1.12)0.91 (0.74, 1.12)1.00 (0.68, 1.48)0.370.37(0.70, 1.19)
Li, 2013 [12]Breast cancerPer 1 cup2446,8120.99 (0.98, 1.00)0.99 (0.98, 1.00)0.99 (0.98, 1.01)0.0090.009(0.98, 1.00)
Gan, 2017 [3]Colon cancerPer 1 cup1513,6500.98 (0.97, 0.99)0.98 (0.97, 1.00)0.97 (0.95, 0.99)0.00060.019(0.95, 1.02)
Gan, 2017 [3]Colorectal cancerPer 1 cup1722,0370.99 (0.98, 1.00)0.99 (0.98, 1.01)0.97 (0.96, 0.99)0.010.292(0.96, 1.03)
Huang, 2013 [7]Endometrial cancerPer 1 cup735710.94 (0.91, 0.96)0.93 (0.90, 0.97)0.94 (0.90, 0.97)6.63E-070.000321(0.85, 1.02)
Xie, 2014 [26]Gastric cancerPer 1 cup923441.00 (0.98, 1.03)1.02 (0.97, 1.06)0.97 (0.93, 1.01)0.8060.482(0.90, 1.15)
Malerba, 2013 [14]GliomaPer 1 cup414931.00 (0.97, 1.03)1.00 (0.96, 1.05)1.00 (0.96, 1.05)0.9270.939(0.85, 1.19)
Kennedy, 2017 [10]Liver cancerPer 1 cup1747300.84 (0.82, 0.86)0.81 (0.77, 0.85)0.90 (0.86, 0.95)2.69E-361.2E-16(0.68, 0.95)
Tang, 2010 [19]Lung cancerPer 1 cup938621.07 (1.04, 1.11)1.07 (1.02, 1.12)1.10 (1.03, 1.17)3E-050.006(0.95, 1.21)
Turati, 2012 [21]Pancreatic cancerPer 1 cup2865341.02 (1.00, 1.03)1.03 (0.99, 1.06)1.04 (1.00, 1.08)0.0470.12(0.90, 1.17)
Gan, 2017 [3]Rectal cancerPer 1 cup1461341.01 (0.99, 1.03)1.01 (0.99, 1.03)0.95 (0.86, 1.07)0.2630.211(0.98, 1.05)
  1. Abbreviation: H/L The highest intake vs. lowest intake of coffee
  2. Reference was provided in Additional file 1: Table S3