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Table 4 Factors Associated with Local Tumor Progression by Univariable and Multivariable Analysis

From: 3D visualization ablation planning system assisted microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (Diameter >3): a precise clinical application

FactorsNo.Univariable AnalysisMultivariable Analysis
χ2P ValueHazard RadioP Value
Age (years) 0.1060.745
 < 6568    
 ≥ 6562    
Gender 1.1240.289
 Male100    
 Female30    
Differentiation 2.2290.337
 Well/moderately54    
 Poorly76    
Comorbidities 0.7590.384
 Yes76    
 No54    
Etiology 0.4550.797
 No13    
 HBV106    
 HCV11    
Cirrhosis 3.0220.082
 Yes114    
 No16    
Maximal tumor diameter (cm) 3.1620.075
 3–584    
 > 546    
Tumor volume (ml) 11.2750.001*
 ≤ 62.593    
 > 62.537    
Tumor number 4.2300.040*
 Single71    
 Multiple59    
Adjacent major organ 0.9040.636
 Large vessels17    
 Diaphragm29    
 Gastrointestinal tract26    
 ND58    
Location 5.9620. 062
 Left liver lobe25    
 Right liver lobe101    
 Left + Right liver lobe4    
CTP grade 0.1670.683
 A124    
 B6    
α-fetoprotein level (ng/ml) 7.4390.006*2.644 (1.354–5.160)0.004*
 > 40064 .  
 ≤ 40066    
Preoperative TACE 0.8050.370
 Yes29    
 No101   
Sessions 1.8970.1840.287 (0.097–6.645)0.024*
 1110    
 > 120    
Preoperative planning 8.6040.003*3.217 (1.557–3.342)0.002*
 3D66    
 2D64    
  1. Note. Date in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. TACE Transarterial chemoembolization, CTP Child-Turcotte-Pugh, 3D Three dimensional, 2D Two dimensional, ND No data. P less than 0.05 was considered as significant difference