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Table 3 Analysis of factors affecting high-risk varices in the entire set of patients with PVTT (n = 206)

From: Variceal bleeding is aggravated by portal venous invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma: a matched nested case-control study

Variable None or low-risk varices High-risk varices Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
(n = 148) (n = 58) OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Age (years) 55.3 ± 9.8 55.9 ± 8.7 1.007 0.976–1.040 0.649    
Male 129 (87.2) 52 (89.7) 1.276 0.483–3.376 0.623    
Hypertension 30 (20.3) 14 (24.1) 1.252 0.608–2.578 0.543    
HBV infection 131 (88.5) 52 (89.7) 1.125 0.420–3.010 0.815    
Child-Pugh class      < 0.001    
A (reference) 139 (93.9) 45 (77.6) 1.0    
B 9 (6.1) 13 (22.4) 4.462 1.789–11.128 < 0.001    
PT (INR) 1.1 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 2.170 1.547–3.073 < 0.001 1.662 1.151–2.401 0.007
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 0.8 1.027 0.758–1.393 0.863    
Platelet count (×103/uL) 151.0 ± 65.0 109.9 ± 48.9 0.986 0.979–0.990 < 0.001 0.985 0.978–0.993 < 0.001
AST (IU/L) 59.9 ± 52.7 49.6 ± 32.0 0.995 0.987–1.002 0.175    
ALT (IU/L) 45.2 ± 45.6 39.9 ± 21.1 0.996 0.987–1.005 0.410    
Ascites 8 (5.4) 10 (17.2) 3.646 1.360–9.771 0.010    
Number of tumors
 Single (reference) 84 (56.8) 31 (53.4) 1.0    
 Multiple 64 (43.2) 27 (46.6) 1.143 0.621–2.104 0.667    
 Tumor size (cm) 7.1 ± 3.5 7.4 ± 3.7 1.020 0.936–1.111 0.651    
 Serum AFP (ng/ml) 12,401.0 ± 33,830.0 15,156.6 ± 63,869.8 1.001 0.995–1.008 0.689    
 Extrahepatic metastasis 20 (13.5) 23 (39.7) 4.206 2.075–8.523 < 0.001 4.240 1.783–10.084 0.001
Degree of PVTT
 Vp2 (reference) 61 (41.2) 15 (25.8) 1.0 1.0
 Vp3 41 (27.7) 7 (12.1) 0.694 0.260–1.851 0.466 0.788 0.251–2.469 0.682
 Vp4 46 (31.1) 36 (62.1) 3.183 1.559–6.497 0.001 3.345 1.457–7.680 0.004
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, or frequency (percentage)
  2. PVTT portal vein tumor thrombosis, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, HBV hepatitis B virus, PT prothrombin time, INR international normalized ratio, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, and AFP alpha-fetoprotein