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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included CRT patients

From: Risk factors and socio-economic burden in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma operation: a machine learning based analysis

  Total (n = 596) Responder (n = 268) Non-responder (n = 328) P value
Demographic characteristics
 Age 61.67 ± 11.73 62.89 ± 11.04 60.67 ± 12.19 0.02
 Male 431 (72.32%) 175 (65.30%) 256 (78.05%) < 0.01
Past medical history
 Ischemic etiology 54 (9.06%) 16 (5.97%) 38 (11.59%) 0.03
 Hypertension 241 (40.44%) 118 (44.03%) 123 (37.50%) 0.13
 Diabetes mellitus 110 (18.46%) 55 (20.52%) 55 (16.77%) 0.29
 Atrial fibrillation 121 (20.30%) 47 (17.54%) 74 (22.56%) 0.16
 Prior CIED implantation 46 (7.72%) 16 (5.97%) 30 (9.15%) 0.20
 History of SCD 67 (11.24%) 24 (8.96%) 43 (13.11%) 0.14
 History of PCI 41 (6.88%) 10 (3.73%) 31 (9.45%) < 0.01
 History of CABG 6 (1.01%) 0 (0.00%) 6 (1.83%) 0.04
Clinical status
 NYHA class 2.80 ± 0.67 2.75 ± 0.66 2.84 ± 0.68 0.11
 Weight (kg) 66.32 ± 12.22 65.78 ± 12.11 66.78 ± 12.31 0.36
 SBP (mmHg) 117.40 ± 18.28 119.93 ± 19.38 115.31 ± 17.07 < 0.01
 DBP (mmHg) 73.81 ± 10.37 74.35 ± 10.59 73.36 ± 10.17 0.25
Biochemical tests
 Hemoglobin (g/L) 133.46 ± 17.22 132.91 ± 16.96 133.92 ± 17.44 0.48
 Lymphocytes (%) 27.19 ± 9.43 28.05 ± 9.50 26.48 ± 9.33 0.04
 RDW-CV (%) 13.82 ± 2.51 13.59 ± 3.14 14.00 ± 1.82 0.06
 RDW-SD (fL) 46.48 ± 17.40 44.76 ± 4.94 47.88 ± 22.95 0.02
 Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 16.42 ± 10.62 14.82 ± 9.58 17.73 ± 11.25 < 0.01
 Combined bilirubin (μmol/L) 7.18 ± 6.73 6.17 ± 6.03 8.01 ± 7.16 < 0.01
 Albumin (g/L) 40.40 ± 5.02 40.91 ± 5.45 39.97 ± 4.59 0.03
 Alanine transaminase (U/L) 28.43 ± 34.30 24.61 ± 18.52 31.58 ± 42.94 < 0.01
 Aspartate transaminase (U/L) 26.97 ± 23.23 23.91 ± 11.60 29.49 ± 29.34 < 0.01
 Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 7.79 ± 3.61 7.50 ± 3.49 8.02 ± 3.70 0.05
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 93.48 ± 33.25 90.76 ± 30.98 95.74 ± 34.90 0.07
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 74.82 ± 24.36 75.21 ± 22.38 74.50 ± 25.92 0.72
 Serum uric acid (μmol/L) 447.64 ± 133.83 427.14 ± 126.73 464.59 ± 137.33 < 0.01
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.87 ± 2.07 6.01 ± 2.28 5.75 ± 1.87 0.14
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.13 ± 1.00 4.14 ± 1.00 4.13 ± 1.00 0.91
 Sodium (mmol/L) 140.30 ± 3.97 140.72 ± 3.95 139.96 ± 3.95 0.02
 Creatine kinase (U/L) 84.18 ± 88.84 80.40 ± 59.78 87.34 ± 107.25 0.34
 Creatine kinase-MB (U/L) 12.43 ± 4.97 12.33 ± 4.51 12.50 ± 5.33 0.68
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 8.19 ± 16.46 7.19 ± 15.84 8.91 ± 16.90 0.27
 Hemoglobin A1c (%) 6.34 ± 1.13 6.36 ± 1.22 6.32 ± 1.05 0.71
 cTnT (ng/ml) 0.06 ± 0.14 0.06 ± 0.15 0.06 ± 0.12 0.60
 NT-proBNP (pg/ml) 3867.71 ± 4795.63 3049.77 ± 3734.94 4521.55 ± 5415.93 < 0.01
 Free triiodothyronine (pmol/L) 4.09 ± 0.83 4.17 ± 0.78 4.02 ± 0.86 0.04
 Free thyroxine (pmol/L) 17.97 ± 3.48 17.46 ± 3.17 18.40 ± 3.67 < 0.01
 TSH (uIU/ml) 3.62 ± 5.44 3.12 ± 3.22 4.03 ± 6.72 0.04
Electrocardiographic parameters
 Atrial fibrillation 109 (18.29%) 43 (16.04%) 66 (20.12%) 0.24
 QRS morphology     < 0.01
 LBBB 391 (65.60%) 213 (79.48%) 178 (54.27%)  
 RBBB 40 (6.71%) 5 (1.87%) 35 (10.67%)  
 IVCD 133 (22.32%) 38 (14.18%) 95 (28.96%)  
 Paced 30 (5.03%) 11 (4.10%) 19 (5.79%)  
 QRS duration (ms) 163.95 ± 23.94 166.17 ± 21.66 162.14 ± 25.54 0.04
 RR interval (ms) 847.10 ± 202.88 826.47 ± 189.64 863.88 ± 211.84 0.02
 Corrected QT interval (ms) 488.54 ± 46.90 495.35 ± 47.49 483.00 ± 45.75 < 0.01
Echocardiographic parameters
 LAD (mm) 49.54 ± 8.42 47.09 ± 7.84 51.53 ± 8.37 < 0.01
 LVEDD (mm) 69.37 ± 10.01 67.40 ± 8.61 70.99 ± 10.76 < 0.01
 LVESD (mm) 58.36 ± 10.17 55.96 ± 9.25 60.32 ± 10.48 < 0.01
 IVS (mm) 9.33 ± 2.01 9.33 ± 1.85 9.32 ± 2.14 0.95
 LVPW (mm) 9.30 ± 1.68 9.33 ± 1.62 9.28 ± 1.73 0.72
 PAP (mmHg) 42.51 ± 15.34 39.95 ± 13.30 44.58 ± 16.54 < 0.01
 LVEF (%) 31.51 ± 7.25 31.22 ± 6.68 31.75 ± 7.68 0.37
 MR 2.50 ± 0.93 2.38 ± 0.96 2.61 ± 0.89 < 0.01
 TR 1.69 ± 0.96 1.56 ± 0.87 1.80 ± 1.03 < 0.01
Medication at discharge
 Diuretics 525 (88.09%) 230 (85.82%) 295 (89.94%) 0.16
 ACEI 354 (59.40%) 158 (58.96%) 196 (59.76%) 0.91
 ARB 176 (29.53%) 86 (32.09%) 90 (27.44%) 0.18
 ARNI 2 (0.34%) 1 (0.37%) 1 (0.30%) 1.00
 β-blocker 530 (88.93%) 240 (89.55%) 290 (88.41%) 0.76
 Spironolactone 536 (89.93%) 245 (91.42%) 291 (88.72%) 0.34
 Ivabradine 99 (16.61%) 50 (18.66%) 49 (14.94%) 0.27
 Digoxin 153 (25.67%) 53 (19.78%) 100 (30.49%) < 0.01
 Amiodarone 103 (17.28%) 27 (10.07%) 76 (23.17%) < 0.01
 Statin 155 (26.01%) 70 (26.12%) 85 (25.91%) 1.00
 Warfarin 77 (12.92%) 30 (11.19%) 47 (14.33%) 0.31
  1. ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, ARNI angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CIED cardiac implantable electronic device, cTnT cardiac troponin T, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, IVCD non-specific interventricular conduction delay, IVS interventricular septum thickness, LAD left atrial diameter, LBBB left bundle branch block, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVESD left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVPW left ventricular posterior wall thickness, MR mitral regurgitation, NT-proBNP N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, RBBB right bundle branch block, RDW-CV red blood cell distribution width (RDW) -coefficient of variation, RDW-SD RDW-standard deviation, SBP systolic blood pressure, TR tricuspid regurgitation, TSH thyroid stimulating hormone
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