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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis of OS for metastatic RCC patients

From: Development and validation of a nomogram to predict overall survival for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

Variables Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Age 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.025   
Race
 White Ref.    
 Black 1.26 (0.99–1.61) 0.06   
 Other 1.08 (0.84–1.38) 0.561   
Sex
 Male Ref.    
 Female 1.07 (0.92–1.24) 0.383   
Marital status
 Married Ref.    
 Unmarried 1.12 (0.97–1.30) 0.117   
Histologic subtype
 CCRCC Ref.    
 PRCC 1.28 (0.95–1.74) 0.106   
 CHRCC 1.06 (0.55–2.04) 0.874   
 SRCC 2.25 (1.78–2.85) < 0.001   
 CDRCC 2.37 (1.40–4.03) 0.001   
Fuhrman grade
 Grade I Ref.   Ref.  
 Grade II 0.81 (0.48–1.35) 0.411 1.04 (0.62–1.76) 0.876
 Grade III 0.94 (0.57–1.55) 0.809 1.34 (0.80–2.25) 0.268
 Grade IV 1.46 (0.88–2.41) 0.142 1.73 (1.02–2.95) 0.042
Tumor size 1.001 (1.000–1.002) 0.002   
Tumor classification
 T1 Ref.    
 T2 1.42 (1.08–1.87) 0.013   
 T3 1.47 (1.16–1.86) 0.002   
 T4 2.43 (1.83–3.23) < 0.001   
 TX 5.63 (3.18–9.97) < 0.001   
Lymph node status
 N0 Ref.   Ref.  
 N1 1.87 (1.61–2.18) < 0.001 1.55 (1.32–1.81) < 0.001
 NX 1.85 (1.35–2.53) < 0.001 1.62 (1.17–2.25) 0.004
Sarcomatoid feature
 Yes Ref.   Ref.  
 No 0.47 (0.40–0.56) < 0.001 0.61 (0.50–0.74) < 0.001
 Unknown 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 0.709 0.80 (0.58–1.11) 0.175
Cancer-directed surgery
 Recommended and performed Ref.   Ref.  
 Recommended but not performed 4.37 (2.46–7.76) < 0.001 4.15 (2.25–7.66) < 0.001
 Not recommended 2.54 (2.12–3.04) < 0.001 2.30 (1.85–2.86) < 0.001
Bone metastasis
 Yes Ref.   Ref.  
 No 0.80 (0.69–0.93) 0.003 0.68 (0.58–0.79) < 0.001
Brain metastasis
 Yes Ref.   Ref.  
 No 0.54 (0.44–0.68) < 0.001 0.60 (0.48–0.76) < 0.001
Liver metastasis
 Yes Ref.   Ref.  
 No 0.54 (0.44–0.66) < 0.001 0.66 (0.54–0.82) < 0.001
Lung metastasis
 Yes Ref.   Ref.  
 No 0.65 (0.56–0.75) < 0.001 0.64 (0.55–0.75) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviation: HR hazard ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, CCRCC clear cell renal cell carcinoma, PRCC papillary renal cell carcinoma, CHRCC chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, SRCC sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma, CDRCC collecting duct renal cell carcinoma
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