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Table 1 Characteristics of all patients (N = 127)

From: Treatment outcome and long-term follow-up of central nervous system germ cell tumor using upfront chemotherapy with subsequent photon or proton radiation therapy: a single tertiary center experience of 127 patients

Characteristics Low risk (n = 69) High risk (n = 58) p value
Sex    0.852
 Male 55 (79.7%) 47 (81.0%)  
 Female 16 (20.3%) 11 (19.0%)  
Age, median (range) 11.8 (3.8–18.9) 12.2 (4.5–25.1) 0.606
Initial presentation
 Headache 35 (50.7%) 35 (60.3%) 0.278
 Vomiting 28 (40.6%) 28 (48.3%) 0.384
 Endocrine problems 21 (30.4%) 18 (31.0%) 0.942
 Visual problems 19 (27.9%) 19 (32.8%) 0.557
 Neurologic symptoms 20 (29.0%) 14 (24.1%) 0.539
Tumor location    0.223
 Pineal 24 (34.8%) 28 (47.5%)  
 Sellar or suprasellar 14 (20.3%) 13 (22.0%)  
 Thalamus or basal ganglia 17 (24.6%) 7 (11.9%)  
 Ventricle 1 (1.4%) 1 (1.7%)  
 Bifocal 10 (14.5%) 7 (11.9%)  
 Multifocal 3 (4.3%) 1 (1.7%)  
 Brain stem 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.7%)  
Pathologic diagnosis    < 0.001
 Germinoma 66 (95.7%) 14 (23.7%)  
 Immature teratoma 0 (0.0%) 5 (8.5%)  
 Choriocarcinoma 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.7%)  
 Mixed 0 (0.0%) 14 (23.7%)  
 Unknown 3 (4.3%) 24 (40.7%)  
Tumor seeding on MRI, Yes 7 (10.1%) 7 (12.3%) 0.704
Initial hydrocephalus, Yes 39 (56.5%) 30 (51.7%) 0.589
ETV, Yes 28 (40.6%) 23 (39.7%) 0.916
EVD, Yes 24 (34.8%) 14 (24.1%) 0.192
Initial EVD and subsequent VP shunt insertion, Yes 5 (7.2%) 6 (10.3%) 0.536
Direct VP shunt insertion, Yes 5 (7.2%) 4 (6.9%) 0.939
Operation due to growing teratoma, Yes 2 (2.9%) 12 (20.7%) 0.001
Follow-up year, median (range) 8.4 (0.3–14.1) 8.3 (0.2–14.2) 0.706
  1. NGGCT nongerminomatous germ cell tumor, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, ETV endoscopic third ventriculostomy, EVD extraventricular drainage, VP ventriculoperitoneal