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Table 3 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios for the association between the use of antipsychotics and breast cancer-specific mortality in patients with severe mental illness

From: Post-diagnostic antipsychotic use and cancer mortality: a population based cohort study

  Users Non-Users Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjusteda HR (95% CI)
N Person years Cancer deaths N Person years Cancer deaths
All antipsychotics 188 898 25 146 658 23 0.97 (0.54–1.74) 1.11 (0.58–2.14)
 1–182 DDDs v non-user 79 382 14 146 658 23 1.11 (0.57, 2.17) 1.37 (0.65, 2.88)
 182+ DDDs v non-user 109 516 11 146 658 23 0.82 (0.39, 1.74) 0.87 (0.38, 1.98)
1st generation antipsychotics 97 511 11 237 1044 37 0.75 (0.38–1.50) 0.95 (0.44–2.04)
 1–182 DDDs v non-user 47 234 6 237 1044 37 0.81 (0.34, 1.92) 0.99 (0.38, 2.58)
 182+ DDDs v non-user 50 277 5 237 1044 37 0.69 (0.27, 1.81) 0.90 (0.31, 2.58)
2nd generation antipsychotics 130 565 16 204 991 32 1.08 (0.59–1.99) 1.10 (0.55–2.18)
 1–182 DDDs v non-user 60 288 10 204 991 32 1.24 (0.61, 2.55) 1.44 (0.67, 3.09)
 182+ DDDs v non-user 70 276 6 204 991 32 0.88 (0.36, 2.14) 0.72 (0.27, 1.93)
1st generation antipsychotics only 58 333 9 146 658 23 0.87 (0.40, 1.90) 1.07 (0.45, 2.56)
2nd generation antipsychotics only 91 387 14 146 658 23 1.16 (0.59, 2.27) 1.20 (0.55, 2.61)
1st and 2nd generation use 39 178 2 146 658 23 0.56 (0.13, 2.51) 0.80 (0.17, 3.79)
Prolactin elevating antipsychoticsb 131 681 15 203 875 33 0.73 (0.39–1.36) 0.86 (0.44–1.68)
 1–182 DDDs v non-user 80 395 10 203 875 33 0.77 (0.38, 1.57) 0.87 (0.40, 1.89)
 182+ DDDs v non-user 51 286 5 203 875 33 0.65 (0.25, 1.73) 0.83 (0.29, 2.40)
Prolactin non-elevating antipsychoticsc 101 417 13 233 1138 35 1.30 (0.68–2.49) 1.19 (0.58–2.44)
 1–182 DDDs v non-user 32 143 7 233 1138 35 2.00 (0.88, 4.55) 2.00 (0.85, 4.69)
 182+ DDDs v non-user 69 275 6 233 1138 35 0.92 (0.38, 2.22) 0.73 (0.28, 1.93)
  1. aModel contains age, year of diagnosis, treatment within 6 months (separate variables for radiootherapy, chemotherapty, surgery, tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor use), comorbidities (prior to diagnosis including chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, renal disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, myocardial infarction, peptic ulcer disease and liver disease), hormonal medication use (oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy, prior to diagnosis), other medication use (statin and aspirin as time varying covariates) and deprivation (in fifths)
  2. bProlactin elevating antipsychotics included chlorpromazine,flupentixol,fluphenazine, haloperidol, pericyazine, perphenazine, pimozide, pipotiazine, promazine, trifluoperazine, zuclopenthixol, amisulpride, risperidone and sulpiride
  3. cProlactin non-elevating antipsychotics included aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and sertindole