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Table 2 Subgroup analyses

From: Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a meta-analysis

Subgroups No. of Articles
(No. of Studies)
HR (95% CI) Heterogeneity Test
I2 (%) P-value
All studies included 54 (76)
Diagnosed time During pregnancy OS 13 (14) 1.46(1.12–1.90) 73.6 < 0.001
DFS 7 (7) 1.30(1.11–1.53) 26.3 0.228
During postpartum period OS 13(13) 1.97(1.67–2.33) 49.0 0.023
DFS 2(2) 1.86(1.17–2.93) 0.0 0.740
PABC definition Pregnancy & < 6 months postpartum OS 2(2) 1.37(1.09–1.72) 0.0 0.852
Pregnancy & < 12 months postpartum OS 20(20) 1.44(1.20–1.72) 60.7 < 0.001
DFS 8(9) 1.52(1.27–1.81) 17.4 0.288
Pregnancy & < 24 months postpartum OS 3(3) 1.42(1.01–2.01) 67.4 0.047
Pregnancy & < 60 months postpartum OS 3(3) 1.48(0.90–2.44) 65.2 0.057
Geographic region Europe OS 15(17) 1.53(1.26–1.86) 71.1 < 0.001
DFS 9(9) 1.32(1.15–1.52) 8.7 0.363
North America OS 16(17) 1.38 (1.17–1.63) 53.2 0.005
DFS 5(6) 1.68(1.35–2.08) 15.5 0.315
Asia OS 9(9) 1.42(1.09–1.85) 60.0 0.010
Others OS 2(2) 1.55(1.13–2.13) 0.0 0.544
Year of publication Before 2000 OS 11(13) 1.46(1.18–1.82) 45.4 0.038
DFS 3(3) 1.27(0.97–1.72) 50.7 0.107
2000–2010 OS 11(12) 1.48(1.19–1.85) 79.0 < 0.001
DFS 4(5) 1.40(1.14–1.71) 20.5 0.284
2011–2019 OS 20(20) 1.43(1.20–1.72) 62.7 < 0.001
DFS 11(11) 1.50(1.29–1.76) 11.5 0.334
HR estimate Paper report OS 24(25) 1.42(1.22–1.65) 73.1 < 0.001
DFS 12(12) 1.35(1.19–1.53) 29.1 0.160
Indirect OS 19(20) 1.43(1.28–1.60) 47.4 0.010
DFS 7(8) 1.48(1.22–1.79) 24.7 0.232